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Amino Acid Synthesis
Terms in this set (28)
The amino acid carbon skeleton is derived from what sources?
Citric acid cycle
Pentose phosphate pathway
What does alpha-ketoglutarate form?
What is synthesized from oxaloacetate?
Aspartate (oxaloacetate + glutamate via AST/AAT)
Asparagine (aspartate + glutamate)
What is synthesized from pyruvate?
Alanine (pyruvate + glutamate via ALT)
What is synthesized from PEP + erythrose 4 phosphate?
Tyrosine (from phenylalanine)
Regulation of amino acid synthesis is regulated by:
Negative feedback inhibition
What are indicators for liver damage?
Amino acid enzyme levels (ALT and AAT/AST)
What is broken down last as an energy source?
When do we breakdown amino acids?
1. During normal synthesis and degradation of proteins if amino acids are not needed
2. When we ingest more amino acids than we need
3. During starvation or uncontrolled diabetes
What occurs during amino acid degradation?
They lose an amino group to form alpha-keto acids, which are oxidized to CO2 + H2O, which provides C units for glucose
How are amino groups excreted?
As urea in the urea cycle
What are the 4 important amino acids in nitrogen metabolism?
How is ammonia produced?
Amino groups are removed from amino acids and collected as L-glutamate. The amino groups are removed from L-glutamate to form ammonia
How is ammonia transported in blood?
As glutamine (combines with glutamate to form glutamine)
How is ammonia transported in the blood from muscle to the liver?
Where does the urea cycle take place?
In the liver
Where do the 2 nitrogens from urea come from?
1 from ammonia
1 from aspartic acid
What happens to ammonia in the urea cycle?
It combines with bicarbonate to form carbamoyl phosphate
What do you start the urea cycle with?
What do you end the urea cycle with?
Explain how fumarate links the CAC and the urea cycle
Fumarate is converted to malate in the CAC
Explain how aspartate links the CAC and the urea cycle
Aspartate is synthesized from oxaloacetate and glutamate. It is converted to oxaloacetate that can be used to transport malate OR in the urea cycle
20 amino acids form _____ breakdown products that enter the CAC
Glucogenic amino acids are converted to what?
Oxaloacetate in gluconeogenesis
Ketogenic amino acids are converted to what?
Acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis
What is PKU?
Inability to metabolize phenylalanine - impairs brain development
Treated with low protein diet
What is maple syrup urine disease?
Defect in catabolism of valine, leucine, and isoleucine that leads to alpha-keto acid buildup
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