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study of populations


The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.


The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.


The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.


The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

Doubling Time

the time required for a population to double in size, The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase


The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.


The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.

Life Expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.

Demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Industrial Revolution

Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power

Medical Revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.

Zero Population Growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero., when the birth rate equals the death rate

Population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

Dependency Ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

Sex Ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.


a period count of the population

Epidemiological Transition

distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition


Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.


an epidemic that is geographically widespread

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