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Bio - 14.1 Review
Terms in this set (21)
What is RNA?
a nucleic acid like DNA that
- has 3 types & some have jobs with relation to information
What are some characteristics unique to DNA? (8)
- only 1 type
- cannot leave nucleus
- stores long-term information
- cannot act as an enzyme
- makes base pairs
What are some characteristics unique to RNA? (8)
- 3 main types
- leaves nucleus
- can act like enzyme
- disposable information that goes away after awhile
- does not normally make base pairs
What are some characteristics shared with both DNA & RNA? (6)
- nucleic acids
- adenine, cytosine, guanine
- sugars, phosphate groups
- found in nucleus in eukaryotes & cytoplasm in prokaryotes
- uses phosphodiester bonds
What are the three types of RNA called?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
Describe the job, location, and structure of the mRNA or messenger RNA.
- JOB: copy of a single DNA sequence to be sent to ribosomes so it can be translated into a protein
- LOCATION: functions in nucleus & migrates to ribosomes
- STRUCTURE: one strand of polypeptides with nitrogenous bases sticking out
Describe the job, location, and structure of the tRNA or transfer RNA.
- JOB: grabs amino acids to help build a protein based on mRNA & brings it to ribosomes during translation
- LOCATION: cytoplasm
- STRUCTURE: hooks with bases sticking out
Describe the job, location, and structure of the rRNA or ribosomal RNA.
- JOB: one of the building blocks of a ribosome along with proteins &
acts as an enzyme
- LOCATION: cytoplasm
What is the purpose of transcription?
to copy DNA into mRNA, which is later translated into polypeptides
Where does transcription take place?
in the nucleus in eukaryotes & cytoplasm in prokaryotes
What is RNA polymerase?
enzyme that binds to DNA during transcription, opens the DNA, and makes mRNA
What is the first step of transcription?
Where to start?
- a promoter sequence (TATA) is where transcription starts
- RNA polymerase finds the promoter sequence & binds to DNA
What is a promoter sequence?
sequence of DNA bases that tells the RNA polymerase where to start copying (TATA)
What is the second step of transcription?
Make the Copy
- RNA polymerase moves down DNA in the 3' → 5' direction only on 1 side of the RNA
- RNA polymerase opens the DNA, sticks RNA nucleotide together to make the mRNA, and closes the DNA back up
uracil instead of thymine
What is the third step of transcription?
remove introns from DNA & splice together the remaining RNA
- only happens in
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