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the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene


percentage of individuals with a genotype who have an associated phenotype


the degree to which a genotype is expressed in an individual


a single gene determines more than one phenotype for and organism.


An environmentally caused trait that occurs in a familial pattern, mimicking inheritance

genetic heterogeneity

A phenotype that can be caused by variants of any of several genes


mitochondria within same cell having different alleles of gene


in genetics, describes two or more genes that tend to be inherited together

recombinant genotype

a series of alleles on a chromosome that differs from the series of either parent

linkage map

A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.


a combination of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited as a single unit

heterogametic sex

2 unlike chromosomes

homogametic sex

2 like chromosomes

psuedoautosomal regions

Small regions of the X & Y chromosomes where they are homologous which allows the two to pair.


the single set of genes that males acquire from their mother's X chromosome

x inactivation

in female mammals, the inactivation of one X chromosome in each somatic cell

manifesting heterozygote

a carrier for a homozygous condition demonstrates clinical manifestations.....can be due to skewed X inactivation in women.....(DMD and hemophilia)

sex limited traits

a characteristic controlled by autosomal genes that is phenotypically exhibited in only one of the two sexes.

sex influenced gene

Trait that is caused by a gene whose expression differs in females.

genomic imprinting

a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent

multifactorial trait

variation in traits caused by genetic and environmental or lifestyle factors

polygenic trait

trait controlled by two or more genes

empiric risk

the average chance that a disease will occur in a family based upon experience and observation of a study population not a theory.


the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes


trait similarity

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