World History ch. 11 Test
World History Ch. 11 Test
Terms in this set (64)
Many scholars believe that groups of people from Asia came to North America on a land bridge that once crossed the __________________
__________________ settled along the tundra region, the treeless land south of the Arctic.
Around 1000 B.C., farming villages appeared in the Eastern Woodlands, the land in eastern North America from the Great lakes to the _____________
Gulf of Mexico
The ______________ were peoples of the Ohio River valley, who extended their culture along the Mississippi River.
The Hopewell people in the Ohio River valley are also known as the ________________
The Hopewell peoples are especially known for _____________
Earth mounds that they built
At the site of ___________________, near the modern city of East St. Louis, Illinois, archaeologists found a burial mound over 98 feet high with a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid in Egypt
The ___________________ lived in villages that consisted of longhouses surrounded by a wooden fence
A _________ was an Iroquois home
The Great Peace created ______________
an alliance of five groups called the Iroquois League.
Describe the impact of the Great Peace
The combined efforts of the Deganawida and Hiawatha resulted in the Great Peace, which created an alliance of five groups called the Iroquois League. A council of five representatives known as the Grand Council met regularly to settle differences among the league of members. The Grand Council, an experiment in democracy, brought the Iroquois a new and peaceful way to deal with their problems. This model was later adopted by Benjamin Franklin for a Plan of Union for the British colonies.
An alliance of five groups of Native Americans called the Iroquois League led to the _______________
The Grand Council, an experiment in democracy, was ____________
possibly used by Benjamin Franklin as a model for a Plan of Union for the British colonies
Each Iroquois group was made up of ______________, groups of related families.
The _____________ were peoples who had many uses for the buffalo.
The Plains Indians used the buffalo for _________________
food, clothing, tools, and shelter.
By stretching buffalo skins over wooden poles, they made circular tents called ____________
The ___________________ lived in the Southwest, in present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado
The Anasazi peoples used stone and ______________ (sun-dried brick) to build ______________, multi-storied structures that could house many people
adobe and pueblos
_____________ was the heart of Anasazi civilization at Chaco Canyon
The Anasazi were finally driven from their city in Chaco Canyon by a 50-year series of ________________
Groups of Anasazi formed a large community at ___________________, where they built a remarkable series of cliff dwellings.
____________ is the name given to the areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the Spaniards arrived.
The ___________________ civilization is the oldest known Mesoamerican civilization.
The ___________________ farmed the muddy riverbanks in the hot and swampy lowlands along the Gulf of Mexico south of Veracruz
The first major city in Mesoamerica was ___________, or "Place of the Gods."
Far to the east of Teotihuacan, on the ______________, another major civilization had arisen.
Some scholars believe that urban centers such as ____________ (in present-day Guatemala) may have had a hundred thousand inhabitants
The Mayan civilization was ______________
governed by a hereditary ruling class
How did the Maya deal with people that they captured?
Ordinary soldiers who were captured in battle became slaves. Captured nobles and war leaders were used for human sacrifice.
he supreme god of the Mayans was _______________
The Mayans created a sophisticated writing system based on hieroglyphs, which _____________
The Mayans used two different systems for measuring time: a ___________________ calendar and a sacred calendar
The ___________________ controlled the upper Yucatan Peninsula from their capital at Chichen Itza.
The origins of the ___________________ are uncertain
The Aztec capital, ___________________ was built on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco
The Aztecs established their capital on the site of the present-day city of ___________________
The Aztec ruler supported local lords in their authority in return for ___________________, goods or money paid by conquered peoples to their conquerors.
Describe the role of women in Aztec society.
From the beginning of their lives, boys and girls in Aztec society were given very different roles. Midwives attending the births told male infants that their place was not in the home because they were warriors. Midwives told female infants just the opposite that their place was in the home. Women in Aztec society were not equal to men, but were allowed to own and inherit property and to enter into contracts, something not allowed in other world cultures at the time. Women were expected to work in the home, weave textiles, and raise children. However, they were also allowed to become priestesses.
___________________ was the Aztec god who took the form of a feathered serpent.
The Aztec initially accepted the Spanish because ___________________.
they let in their own conquerors
The Aztec practiced human sacrifice in order to ___________________.
delay the final destruction of the world
The Spanish force that arrived at Tenochtitlan was commanded by Hernan ___________________
___________ was the Aztec monarch who initially welcomed the Spaniards
___________________ was the conqueror of the Aztec
___________________ is the oldest major city in the Americas.
___________________ was an advanced civilization near the Pacific coast, not far south of the border of Ecuador
Around 1000, the people in Ecuador were growing a type of corn called ___________________
Pottery, among other things, shows that the ___________________, like peoples in Central America, led lives centered around warfare.
The kingdom of Chimor was destroyed by people who created an even more spectacular empire - the ___________________.
___________________ was the capital of the Incan Empire.
The Incan leader who expanded the empire in the 1440s was _________________
What was the language taught to the people conquered by the Inca?
Describe the importance of forced labor to the Incan society.
The Inca were great builders, creating buildings and monuments that were a wonder to early European visitors. They also built a system of roads to better connect their empire. In order to construct these buildings and roads, however, they needed a reliable source of labor. Therefore, the Inca instituted forced labor. All Incan subjects were responsible for labor service, usually for several weeks each year. Laborers, often with their entire communities, were moved according to need from one part of the empire to another to take part in building projects.
What were the expectations for girls and women in Incan society?
Women were expected to marry someone within their own social group. Their life was spent taking care of children and weaving cloth. The only possible variation for an Incan woman was to be chosen as a young girl to serve as a priestess in the temple.
Machu Picchu was built on a lofty hilltop far above the ___________ River.
Machu Picchu was ___________________.
city built by the Inca and serves as the finest example of Inca architecture
The emperor of the Inca was believed to be descended from the sun god __________________
Since the Inca lacked a writing system, they _____________
they instead kept records using a system of knotted strings called the quipu
After the Incan emperor died from smallpox, which of his sons won the battle for his throne?
One of the factors that contributed to the downfall of both the Inca and the Aztec empires was their ___________________.
lack of a natural immunity to diseases the Spanish brought with them from Europe, including smallpox
___________________ was the conqueror of the Inca capital
After conquering the Incan capital of Cuzco, Pizarro ___________________
established a new capital at Lima
Explain the factors that led to the conquest of the Inca.
In 1531, Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro and a small band of about 180 men landed on the Pacific coast of South America. Pizarro bought steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses, none of which the Inca had ever seen. Pizarro and his men also unknowingly brought smallpox, to which the Inca had no natural immunity. Soon a smallpox epidemic had devastated entire Incan villages and even claimed the life of the Incan emperor. When the emperor died, each of his two sons claimed the throne, leading to a civil war. When one of the sons emerged as the victor, Pizarro captured him and had him executed. The Incan soldiers were no match for the Spanish guns and cannons. Pizarro captured the Incan capital of Cuzco and established a new capital at Lima for a new colony of the Spanish Empire