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Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire
Terms in this set (67)
Edict of Milan
(313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Preservation of Greek and Roman Culture
One of the greatest contributions of the Byzantine Empire
Russian word for Caesar; title given to autocratic rulers in Russia
Holy images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or saints of the Orthodox Christian Church that were supposed to create a sense that the sacred person was actually present. Controversy over the use of icons was one cause of the Great Schism of 1054.
A style of art, utilized in the Byzantine Empire, where pictures or designs are formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials. They adorned the interiors of churches including the Hagia Sophia.
1054 - Christianity was permanently divided between the Roman Catholic Church in the West led by the Pope and the Orthodox Church in the East led by the Patriarch. Issues that sparked the division included: Byzantine Christians did not believe that the pope in Rome had supreme authority over them; Byzantine priests could marry, while Roman Catholic priests could not; Greek (and not Latin) was the language of the Byzantine Church; and the belief by some that the use of icons in the Byzantine Church bordered on idolatry.
Eastern Orthodox; Cyrillic; domes; autocratic
The adoption of the ________ ______ religion, onion ____, ________ government and the ______ alphabet by the Russian people occurred as a result of contact with byzantine culture in the 10th century.
Which empire had the greatest influence on the history and cultural development of Russia?
After the reign of Justinian, the Byzantine empire was weakened by internal court struggles and invading armies. The final blow to the empire was the taking of Constantinople by the ________ empire in 1453.
A combination of wealth and a time of relative peace/stable governments often leads to cultural achievement (Prosperity, Unity Peace and Achievement - PUPA); examples include Gupta, Pax Romana, Han Dynasty
(274 CE - 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Laws of the Byzantine empire based on the Twelve Tables of Rome and the decisions of Roman courts, became the basis for laws in many European nations and preserved Roman law during the Middle Ages
This empire was once known as the Eastern Roman Empire after the Roman empire was divided by Diocletian. At its height this empire covered an area from Rome through southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, down to Egypt and across North Africa. Its capital was Constantinople on the Bosporus strait.
This narrow strip of water connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The Roman , Byzantine and Ottoman Empires all coveted this area because it allowed for control of key trade routes.
This city was the capital of the Byzantine empire located on a peninsula overlooking the Bosporus Strait (the strip of water that connected the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. This city possessed an outstanding harbor and was protected on three sides by water. It central location allowed for control of key trade routes that linked Europe and Asia.
Greek, Roman and Christian
The Byzantine Empire blended _______, ______ and _________ influences and spread them to other regions of the world.
In Russia, thriving trade with Constantinople helped ________ to become the center of the first Russian state.
The Byzantine empire reached its peak under this emperor who reigned from 527-565. He was an autocrat, a single ruler with complete authority. During his reign, Byzantine armies reconquered parts of North Africa, Italy and southern Spain. He set up a team of scholars to gather and organize the ancient laws of Rome. His code included Roman laws, legal writings and even a student handbook. This code became the basis of law for both the the Roman Catholic Church and medieval rulers. He launched a building program that included the Church of Hagia Sophia.
a single ruler with complete authority (ex. Justinian)
This church was constructed by Justinian and its use of the dome is an example of of how the Byzantine empire extended Roman knowledge of engineering.
head of the Roman Catholic Church; spiritual representative of Jesus on earth
religious wars of the Middle Ages in which Christians from Europe fought to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims; Christians failed to retake the Holy Land
The Christian name for Palestine/Israel, the area in the Middle East that includes the city of Jerusalem.
Alexander the Great
(356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
city-state in Ancient Greece; established the basis of Western democracy; practiced direct democracy, golden age under the leadership of Pericles
Athenian philosopher; usually seen as the father of western philosophy. "The unexamined life is not worth living."
A Roman General who conquered Gaul. He declared himself dictator for life, but was murdered by supporters of the republic. His death marked the beginning of 10 years of civil war.
(63 BCE - 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE - 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar. His reign formally ended the republic of Rome and began the Pax Romana (Golden Age of Rome).
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic to protect individual following demands by plebeians. They were displayed in the forum so that everyone knew the law.
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws. Rome is credited with creating this government which later spread to Western Europe and the world.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180; compared to the Pax Mongolia and other golden ages
A narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water (ex. Bosporus)
A body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides (examples include Italy and Korea)
What letter represents the Bosporus Strait?
What letter represents the Mediterranean Sea?
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts; went to war with Athens
Civil war between Greek city states, in which Athens ruled sea, and Sparta ruled land. Sparta's alliance with Persia led to Athen's defeat
Socrates' student; described the ideal form of government in his famous book, The Republic
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato
"Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.
A building built in Rome during the reign of Augustus as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome. It is famous for its domed roof that was a model for Byzantine, Russian and Western Renaissance architects.
5th century B.C.E wars between the Persian empire and Greek city-states; Greek victories allowed Greek civilization to define identity. Athens enters a golden age after the war.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean which ushered in the Pax Romana (Rome's Golden Age).
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another often through trade or war
All citizens in ancient Athens had the right to attend the Assembly, where they could meet in open discussion and cast votes. This situation is an example of _______ _______.
A Greek poet, author of the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey
At the height of its power, which civilization controlled the entire coastal region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea?
After the fall of Rome, the eastern portion of the Roman Empire became known as the _________ _______.
The most important contribution of the Greek city-state of Athens was the development of _____ _________.
Which geographic factor contributed to the formation of independent city-states in ancient Greece?
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
Both Greece and Japan are characterized by island chains or _________.
One reason for the decline of both the Han dynasty and the western Roman Empire was _____ ______.
One contribution of ancient Roman culture was the development of a ________ form of government.
The Pillars of Emperor Asoka of the Mauryan Empire and the Code of Hammurabi of Babylon are most similar to the _____ ______ of the Romans
One way in which the Twelve Tables of Rome, the Code of Hammurabi, and the Justinian Code were similar is that they established _____ legal systems
The Han dynasty and the Roman Empire were similar is that both promoted unity and communication by building a strong system of _____.
An immediate result of the fall of the Roman Empire was a period of disorder and ____ ________.
The ancient Romans' most significant contribution to Europe has been in the area of ______.
The ideals developed in the Athens of Pericles and in Republican Rome influenced the development of
______ _______ in Britain.
The introduction of the Cyrillic alphabet and Orthodox Christianity to Russia is most closely associated with _______ _______.
Which region had the greatest influence on the historical and cultural development of the Byzantine Empire?
Europe and Asia
Constantinople's location on the Bosporus Strait was one reason that the Byzantine Empire was able to control key trade routes between _____ and ______.
A major goal of the Christian Church during the Crusades (1096 - 1291) was to capture the ____ _______ from Islamic rulers.
During the 200 years when the Mongols ruled _______ was isolated and paid tribute to the Khans.
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