Obesity is the number one nutritional disorder in children in the United States. In 2004, 17% of American children aged between 9 and 19 were considered obese. Risk factors for obesity include other obese family members and infants born to diabetic mothers. Associated environmental factors include sedentary lifestyle, total caloric intake, television watching, and computer games. All are considered contributory factors in childhood obesity. Binge eating disorder is a relatively new eating disorder category. It is most frequent in overweight or obese individuals. This disorder includes recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating more than most individuals would in a 2-hour period) and a sense of lack of control over the impulse to eat, marked distress over the episode at least 2 days a week, and is not associated with regular compensatory activity such as purging or fasting. Folate deficiency anemia (megaloblastic) can occur in infants within a few weeks after birth. This deficiency may be a result of malabsorption, low dietary intake such as with goat's milk or home-prepared formulas that have been sterilized by heating, or formulas based on pasteurized milk. Infants who are breastfed or given supplemented cows' milk formulas do not have a problem with folate deficiency. In children, rickets is most commonly a result of poor dietary intake of vitamin D and inadequate exposure to direct sunlight. Vitamin D sources include milk, cheese, and baby formula. Vitamin D in humans is produced by activation of its inactive precursors in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light. The answer is D.
EXPLANATION: Hypomagnesemia is a common finding in the patient who abuses alcohol. Other leading causes include diarrhea, diuretics, aminoglycosides, and amphotericin B. The etiology of hypomagnesemia in the patient with a history of alcohol abuse is thought to be a combination of malabsorption and inadequate dietary intake, possibly with alcohol exerting an antagonistic effect on absorption. Signs and symptoms are those of neuromuscular and central nervous system hyperirritability, including weakness and muscle cramps, tremors, nystagmus, a positive Babinski response, confusion, and disorientation. Hypertension, tachycardia, and ventricular arrhythmias may develop.