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121 terms

BIO TEST 1

STUDY
PLAY
In what way(s) is the science of biology influencing and changing our culture?
all of the above
What are the two main processes that ecosystems depend upon?
nutrient cycling and energy flow
Which of the following is not recycled but is lost from ecosystems?
energy
Relative to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are usually ______.
larger and more complex
Humans are composed of ______ cells.
eukaryotic
What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell?
organelles
What are eukaryotic genes composed of
DNA
What is a gene?
a unit of heredity
The human genome consists of about ______ chemical letters.
3 billion
Taxonomy is the ______.
naming and classifying of species
How does taxonomy assist biologists?
by categorizing diverse items into smaller and smaller numbers of groups
Which domain(s) consist(s) of prokaryotic cells?
Bacteria and Archaea
What accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs?
artificial selection
What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?
Discovery science-describing nature
hypothesis-driven science-explain nature.
Discovery science is primarily based on ______.
observation
How does inductive reasoning differ from deductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning-specific to the general, deductive reasoning-general to the specific.
______ is an example of an element.
water
essential to life and a trace element?
iodine
Positive charge?
protons>electrons
All atoms of an element have the same number of ______.
protons
Atomic mass - atomic number equals
neutrons
atomic number=
protons and electrons
Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______ and different numbers of ______
protons . . . neutrons
How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes?
Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable.
The second electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of ______ electron(s).
8
Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7; therefore, it has ______ electrons in its outermost electron shell.
5
atom with an electrical charge is a(n) ______.
ion
In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?
K + Cl → K+ + Cl— → KCl
ionic
What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?
covalent
Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can sulfur form?
2
The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by ______ bonds.
covalent
Why is water considered a polar molecule?
The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge.
Adjacent water molecules are joined by ______ bonds.
hydrogen
Adjacent water molecules are connected by the ______.
electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule
How many oxygen atoms are in the products of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O
24
What are the reactant(s) in the following chemical reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O
C6H12O6, H2O, and O2
The tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together is called ______.
cohesion
Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. The sugar is the ______, the water is the ______, and the sweetened water is the ______.
solute . . . solvent . . . solution
As water freezes ______.
its molecules move farther apart
A base ______.
removes H+ ions
) The lower the pH of a solution, the ______.
more acidic the solution
What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH?
buffers
A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond(s).
4
______ is a hydroxyl group.
OH
In the following reaction, galactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
monomer
What name is given to the following reaction?
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
dehydration reaction
What name is given to the following reaction?
sucrose + water → glucose + fructose
hydrolysis
Carbohydrates typically include ______.
C, H, and O atoms
Glucose and fructose are?
isomers
Complete the equation:
monosaccharide + monosaccharide → ______ + water
disaccharide
In the following equation, lactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
disaccharide
Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
starch
Animals store carbohydrates as ______.
glycogen
Cellulose is an example of ______.
fiber
Which of the following is hydrophilic?
cellulose
"Look at this ______ in my coffee!"
hydrophobic substance
A glycerol with three fatty acids attached is referred to as a ______.
fat
What name is given to the following reaction?
glycerol + 3 fatty acids → triglyceride + 3 water molecules
dehydration reaction
Saturated fats are saturated with ______.
hydrogen
By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds?
unsaturated
Which of the following is lowest in unsaturated fats?
beef
A fat that is hydrogenated is ______.
more solid
Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers
amino acid
What is the name given to the reaction that breaks peptide bonds?
hydrolysis
A protein's function is dependent on its ______.
shape
Destruction of a protein's shape is called _______.
denaturation
Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ monomers.
nucleotide
A specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is a ______.
gene
DNA nucleotides include ______.
tgac
Which of the following is true with regard to a DNA molecule?
a=t and c=g
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?
TCATGAC
How does RNA differ from DNA?
uracil vs thymine.
The ability to tolerate lactose throughout life is most likely to be seen in ______.
cultures that keep dairy herds
What type of microscope would be best for studying the detailed structure of the surface of a plasma membrane?
scanning electron microscope
one difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.
have membrane-bound organelles, which are lacking in
When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.
have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.
phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
The extracellular coats of cells ______.
protect and support cells
______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.
genes
The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.
a double membrane
The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ______.
chromatin
What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes?
nucleolus
Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.
ribosomes
Where does protein synthesis take place?
ribosomes
The endomembrane system includes ______.
glver
A hormone that will be secreted from the cell is manufactured by ribosomes _____.
attached to the er
Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ______.
lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification
Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?
protein modification
Lysosomes are responsible for ______.
digestion of organic matter inside the cell
) If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.
DIGEST ITSELF
Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.
LYSOSOMES
In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons
central vacuoles
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ______.
cell wall and central vacuole
Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ______.
surrounded by two membranes
Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ______.
stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP
Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?
the cristae of a mitochondrion
Tobacco smokers
obacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.
Which of the following is a measure of disorder?
entropy
Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changing ______.
chemical energy into kinetic energy
You have a 2-liter bottle of liquid water at 0°C. About how many Calories are needed to heat up the water to 100°C?
200 Calories
Energy is transferred from ATP to other molecules by transferring a(n) ______.
phosphate group
Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely ______.
result in cell death
The sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in organisms is called ______.
metabolism
Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by
decreasing activation energy
Enzymes catalyze specific reactions T/F
T
Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme?
sucrose + sucrase + water → sucrase + glucose + fructose
sucrase
Which component of the following reaction is the substrate?
sucrose + sucrase + water → sucrase + glucose + fructose
sucrose
Diffusion is an example of ______.
passive transport
Diffusion proceeds until
equilibrium is reached
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.
C) transport proteins . . . down
A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true?
the balloon is hypertonic relative to beaker.
When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______.
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.
isotonic to its solution
Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______.
is hypotonic to the protozoan
if placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?
inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______.
become turgid
Which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?
active transport
______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.
Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis
Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?
exocytosis
Relaying a message from a receptor protein to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called ______.
signal transduction
Which of the following is most like a signal transduction pathway in a cell?
a person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell