Weather 1

Weather Dynamics
The study of how WATER AND AIR cause weather patterns.
The day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere. SHORT-TERM!!
The average conditions of the atmosphere. LONG TERM!!
Lines that run east to west but measure how far north or south of equator.
Lines that run north to south but measure how far east or west of the prime meridian.
Earth's Tilt
23.5 degrees
23.5 degrees
Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn
Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle
23.5 degrees north- 23.5 degrees south
30 degrees north and south- 60 degrees north and south
Polar regions
60 degrees north and south- 90 degrees north and south
Transfer of energy from a hot body to a colder body
Gasses and liquids
The vertical transfer of energy by the movement of particles in a fluid
The horizontal transfer of energy by the movement of particles in a fluid
The transfer of energy through the collision (vibration) of particles in a solid.
The transfer of energy by means of waves that do not require a medium.
A measurement of the percentage of light that an object reflects; the higher the albedo, the greater the objects ability to reflect sunlight.
Heat sink
Any object or material that absorbs energy and becomes warmer: the atmosphere and oceans are examples of heat sinks.
Heat Source
The source of heat.
Heat Capacity
The measure of how much heat a substance requires to increase it's temperature or how much heat it releases as its temperature decreases.
Latent Heat
The heat needed to change states.
Cause of Seasons
The earths revolution around the sun and the earth's tilt on it's axis.
Day and Night
Caused by the earth's rotation on it's axis
June 21st
-Summer solstice
-Maximum tilt towards the sun in the N.H. so most hours of daylight
-Sun is over the tropic of cancer
Autumnal Equinox
-First day of fall
-Sept. 22/23
-12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
December 21st
-Winter solstice
-Shortest day of the year in the N.H.
-N.H. is at maximum tilt away from the sun
-Sun is over the tropic of Capricorn
Vernal Equinox
-March 21st
-Sun is over the equator
-12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of darkness
The blanket of air and moisture that surrounds the Earth.
Atmospheric Layers
Troposphere (contains weather, temperature goes down as you go up)
Stratosphere (Contains the ozone layer, temperature goes up as you go up, planes fly in this layer)
Mesosphere (Temperature goes down as you go up)
Thermosphere/Ionosphere (Temperature goes up as you go up)
Exosphere (Space)
Where is atmospheric pressure the highest?
Atmospheric pressure is greatest in the troposphere because most of the air molecules are in the section.
Prevailing Winds
Wins that blow mostly from one direction over one area on the Earth's surface.
Coriolis Effect
The apparent change of direction of a moving object in a rotating system,named after French mathematician Gaspard G. de Coriolis; in weather systems, the coriolis effect is caused by Earth's counter clockwork rotation. (NOT TRUE!!!!)
Prevailing winds north to south
Polar easterlies 90-60
Mid-latitude westerlies 60-30
Northeast trade winds 30-0
Southeast trade winds 0-30
Mid-latitude westerlies 30-60
Polar Easterlies 60-90
The combined mass of the water on, under, and over the surface of the planet.
Liquid to gas
Gas to liquid
Solid to gas or gas to solid
Causes of ocean currents
-Convection currents
-Prevailing winds and the coriolis effect
-Earth's rotation
-Shapes of the continents
-Heat capacity of water
-Amount of salt
Creation of rainforests
Warm waters along the coast evaporate, form clouds and produce large amounts of precipitation.
Creation of deserts
Cold ocean currents flow close to shoe causing the air to become cold and dry resulting in very little precipitation.
Moderation of Temperature
Ocean currents are responsible for costal regions being cooler in summer and warmer in winter than inland regions. This happens because it takes water a long time to cool back down.
Convective Clouds
Are formed in a vertical motion as a result of the instability in the atmosphere. This instability can be caused by: heating of the bottom of an air air layer, cooling at the top of an air layer, saturation or lifting of a possibly unstable layer, or a combination of all of the above.
Frontal Clouds
Are made when warm moist air rises up over a mass of cooler denser air. The "front" is the place where the warm and cool air meet.
Orographic clouds
Are formed when air is forced to rise by the Earth's topography (ex. mountains)
Wispy this clouds
Thick tall clouds
Rain holding, dark gray (Nimbostratus, nimbo-cumulus)
Medium height
No name
Low height
Main cause of fog
Warm ocean currents meeting cold ocean currents
Reflection and absorption of radiant energy
Solar Energy:
-3% reflected from surface
-20% absorbed by clouds
-27% reflected by clouds
-51% absorbed by land or oceans
Measures atmospheric pressure
Measures wind speeds
Measures humidity
Connect areas of equal pressure on weather maps (closer together means high winds, far apart means low winds).
The study of the atmosphere and weather forecasting. The science of weather.
A person who works in the field of meteorology.
Low-Pressure Systems
An area with warm air that is rising.
The leading edge of moving air masses with different proprieties that don't blend easily, so a boundary, or front, develops as they meet.
Warm Front
The leading edge of a warm air mass
Cold Front
The leading edge of a clod air mass.
Occluded Front
The front that forms when a cold front catches up to and overtakes a warm front; the warm air is lifted above the surface of earth and cut off, or occluded, from the cooler air be low and the storm weakens.
Stationary Front
An unmoving front between a warm air mass and a cold air mass; usually means stable weather until the air masses begin to move.
A low-pressure, swirling air mass; winds in a cyclonic storm move counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
A high-pressure system that rotates clockwise in the NH and counterclockwise in the SH.
Thermals (Thermal updrafts)
Local convection currents that are set up during the day.
Sea Breeze: Steps
-Solar energy warms the land faster than the water

-The convection current that results moves air from the water to the land.
Land Breeze: Steps
-As the sun sets the land cools faster than the water

-The air above the water rises and is replaced by cooler air from the land

-A convection thermal flows from the land toward the water.
Lake-Effect Snow
When an air mass moves across a large body of water it picks up a considerable amount of moisture. In winter, the air above the land is colder than the air above the water and therefore, when the air blows onshore the colder air temperature causes the moisture to change into snow.
Chinook Winds: (Snow Eater)
On the west side of the Rockies, orographic lifting causes water vapor in the air to condense into clouds, snow, and rain. A lot of energy is released during this phase change so that the air is warmed.
Water that reaches the ground in either liquid or solid form for example, rain, snow, hail, freezing rain.
What determines what type of precipitation falls?
The temperature of the land and atmosphere.
A solid form of water that forms in cumulonimbus clouds high in the troposphere.
Forms when the air cools and the water vapor it contains condenses on a cool surface near the ground.
When the air temperature is below freezing and water molecules sublimate, frost forms.
A measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere; the more wager vapor in the atmosphere, the more humid it becomes.
Relative Humidity
The measure of the amount of water vapor actually in the air as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at that temperature. (Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air).
High Humidity
High Humidity