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DLA 13: Other Outcomes and Causation
Terms in this set (21)
The Basic question in Analytic Epidemiology is - Are ..... and ..... linked?
Epidemiology does not determine the ..... of a disease in a given individual, Instead, it determines the ....../....... between a given exposure and frequency of disease in populations ie we can ..... causation based upon the association and several other factors?
...... is an identifiable relationship between an exposure and disease?
-Exposures associated with a difference in disease risk are often called "risk factors"
...... implies there is a true mechanism that leads from exposure to disease?
- Finding an association does not make it causal
Research Questions/ Hypotheses
General Models of Causation- How do we establish cause?
Pyramid of Associations
-Association bw an exposure and disease?
-How likely is a to be a causal relationship?
-Most of it is due to chance
-Just a minor number of association is causal
Hierarchy of Epidemiologic Study Design
- RCTs --> studies that have highest ability to establish causation
What are the 9 Criteria established by Bradford Hill for establishing Causality?
...... states that the cause / exposure must precede the effect / outcome?
What is the only absolute criteria amongst the guidelines suggested by Bradford Hill?
The Strength of Association is measured by ...... or .....? A strong association is more likely to be ..... than a weak association? A strong association is unlikely to be due to undetected ..... or bias?
Risk Ratio (relative risk)
Rate Ratio (odds ratio)
-Higher the strength of association --> higher chance of getting disease
-Eg: In a RR of 5 vs a RR of 2, the RR of 5 has a higher chance of getting the disease if you are exposed vs not exposed
...... is an association found in several different studies with different study designs carried out under different circumstances with different populations? It is more likely to be .....?
-Establishes a relationship between smoking and lung cancer
-Shows that there is a relationship
-This is consistency --> many diff studies on same topic
...... Relationship says that if you increase exposure then the likelihood to get the disease increases?
-Eg: if you increase the number of cigarettes smoked per day there is a higher chance to develop lung cancer
-Is there a clearly defined mechanism in which an exposure leads to a disease
-Eg: is there a mechanism in which smoking leads to lung cancer?
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