History Exam review
Terms in this set (94)
According to Muhammad, Abraham was an even greater prophet than Moses and that God wanted him to to build the Ka' ba.
First part of the christian bible, some people say that this is more of gods own words than the new testament
An Egyptian born hebrew / later became prophet / most important prophet in Judaism, still important in Christianity and Islam.
The Ten Commandments are ten rules set by God, both religious and moral, for his people to follow. He gave them to Moses to share with his people.
People who are said to be god's messenger (i.e. Jesus), shape religion and spread the word of God
An agreement between God and the Jewish people, bound the Jewish people to God and each other involves 10 commandments
The Christian prophet and son of god, one of the main differences between Judaism and Christianity
A being who would save all of the jews at the end of the world means profit of christ
helped the gentiles embrace christianity
His teachings of Jesus gave a universal appeal
The second part of what would become the christian bible
when jews are living outside of israel; the dispersion of any people from their homeland (the dispersion of Jews outside of Israel)
A prophet who felt a series of revelations that he thought came from Allah, clarifying Allah's nature, Founder of Islam
A haven for travelers in an unforgiving wasteland.
Peaceful place filled with lots of trading, religions, and cultures.
Muhammad rededicated Mecca to the worship of Allah.
The move from Mecca to Yathrib by the Islamic people.,
Muhammad began preaching his message in Mecca.
Was changed from Yathrib to Medina(city of the Prophet).
Sacred praying area for Muslim worship
"holy war" (muslim
The 5 most important principles of Islam
1 SHAHADAH — there is no god but Allah bbbb wr ;
2 SALAT — saying prayers five times daily while facing Ka'ba m Mecca
3 ZAKAT — giving alms to the poor
4 SAWM — abstaining from food or sex during daylight hours during Ramadan
5 HAJJ — making a pilgrimage to Mecca during one's lifetime.
pilgrimage to Mecca, supposed to be done during lifetime, one of five pillars of Islam
Islamic Legal code, showed pathway to paradise
Dome of the Rock
The Mosque in Jerusalem, sacred to Islamic Religion
Holy book of the Muslims
the first chief muslem of mecca
"People of the Book"
Jews and christians(they possessed their own scriptural
the followers and party of Ali (Shi'at Ali) which is the second largest branch of islam
The majority of Muslims, who claim to the Sunna, or the traditional practices of the Prophet. They believed that they were the true heirs of the Muhammad.
Ruler of the Franks who created an empire that reunited much of Western and Central Europe
His empire strengthened and spread medieval culture.
The system of government and landholding.
this is an economic structure where the land is owned by the lords and given down to knights who give it down to the peasents.
The manor was the basic economic unit during the Middle Ages. manors were self-sufficient. They produced food, clothing, furniture, tools, and weapons
anything related the "citizens"
not focused on religion
Religious rituals or acts that christians must take part in so they can gain salvation
Sacraments were divine worship in the form of prayer, attendance at services, and participation in sacred rituals that only priests could perform. The seven sacraments were related
to the most important aspects of our lives, baptism, confirmation, matrimony, penance, extreme unction, Holy Orders, and the Holy Eucharist.
idea that the pope is supreme, that nobody could challenge him, and that he was the closest to god, Pope, bishop, priest.
ecclesiastical law laid down by the pope, mixture of roman law and regulations by church, used to make decisions by church courts
When the church denies you sacraments, when the church separates you from their church and never lets you back to the church where you were excommunicated from
churches with pointed arches, towering walls, stain glass windows, flying buttresses and vaulted ceilings
seized power and over ran byzantine empire, (muslim heartland)
Pope Urban II
head of the western church who also aided in the starting of the Crusades
were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages The First Crusades was commissioned to capture the Muslim land of Constantinople which the Church claimed was holy land
The Christian reconquest of Iberia from the Muslims, Pope Alexander II promised salvation for anyone who joined
Hundred Years' War
A series of conflicts fought by France and England. In 1429, the tides were turned in favor of France because of a teenager named Joan of Arc
Also known as the Black Death. First appeared in the Byzantine empire from north african ships and spread by fleas on rats and helped lead to the fall of the church.Significantly brought down the population
The Medici were a rich banking family that used its fortune to fund paintings, sculptures, palaces From Florence Italy.
The focus on human achievement, encompasses Realism, Classicism, Secularism, Realism
inspiration from Greek and Roman Art + Lit.
Separation from the church, doing thing's not related to religion
Patrons of the Arts
people who supported the arts financially, made Renaissance possible and funded the artists
Castiglione - The Courtier
described the perfect man, Renaissance man, showed main aspects of the Renaissance (1528) wrote it
painter and sculptor in the high renaissance renaissance whose most famous piece is the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Leonardo da Vinci
painter in florence. clashed with medic and left
the everyday (spoken) language. Specifically not latin.
Machiavelli - The Prince
was an historian, philosopher, and humanist during the time of the renaissance. His most well known piece of work is "The Prince"- which stated that a ruler should be feared rather than liked
Renaissance that occurred in Northern Europe, characterized by the use of oil paints, realism and the printing press
Germany's most innovative artist.MZ He combined Italian Renaissance and Northern Renaissance values and techniques
in his paintings.
German Inventor who invented the printing press. Which helped the spread of literature by making it cheaper and easier to make.
A devout german monk obsessed with fears of death and eternal damnation, he wrote the 95 thesis. Was disgusted by the idea of selling indulgences.
sold indulgences, drove Luther to write the 95 theses.
Indulgences and 95 Theses
a remission of the punishment still due for sins that had been forgone though pence, to reduce or elimination suffering in purgatory. / Luther's response to indulgences (began Lutheranism)
Charles V was the Holy Roman emperor at the time when luther disagreed with the church
Diet of Worms
Luther's heresy trial, before Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire, Luther didn't recant views and was banished
When the german peasants revolted against the princes. Martin Luther did not support it.
English King you started the anglican church, married Ann Boleyn and had six other wives
Act of Supremacy
naming King Henry the official head of the Church of England and breaking away from the catholic church. Then assimilating all church land and wealth
the religion of henry VIII and his followers.
It as the English church. It had some of the same rituals performed by priests and bishops, and it also had some Protestant theology that was introduced.
The Protestant daughter of Henry VIII's second marriage
a spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from a coruna in august 1588; sailed to the Netherlands to take the Spanish army to England
A religious rebel who lived during the Reformation, who believed in predestination and the elect; the founder of the puritanical Calvinists
The Elect and Predestination
Calvin's belief that your destination after life is decided before birth and isn't affected by other decisions. MZ The Elect- people that have been chosen by God for salvation
Seven Percent of France's people and 40 percent of it's nobles that were Calvinists. Fought against catholic factions for religious and political power.
Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits
A Spanish soldier until crippled by a canon, read books of Christ and enrolled in the University of Paris. Embarked on a spiritual crusade.
Council of Trent
one of the ecunial councils in roman catholic times
Church tribunals to investigate, arrest, and prosecute people suspected of heretical beliefs.
30 Years' War
The Holy Roman Empire and the Protestants engaged in a destructive war for power
Peace of Westphalia
1648, end of 30 years war, weakened the Hapsburgs, shrank the Holy Roman Empire, left Europe divided along religious lines, divided Germany into autonomous communities
An Venetian Explorer who traveled to China
Vasco da Gama
portuguese sailor who sailed around africa to india to find a new trade route that could avoid the middle east
sailed southmost point of africa
The captain of an expedition to the cape of good hope in.Would have gone to India, but the sailors insisted on returning home. Went to Lisbon in 1489 he reported that Portugal had found a way to undercut Muslim traders. Cargos could be shipped by sea for a cheaper cost than it would by land
Prince Henry the Navigator
He was third in line for the thronein Portugal, he decided to organize maritime expeditions to chart the western coast of Africa. He initiates Portuguese expansion
discovered the "New World" of the Americas on an expedition in 1492. He was in search of asia but because of his miscalculation it led him to more fame; looking for a way to the Indies by sailing westward across the Atlantic.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between the Spanish and Portuguese that divided the world up between them
Aboard one of the three-ship expedition to the new land as a cartographer and chronicler. He named the entire hemisphere after himself: America
A Portuguese mariner sailing for spain was finally accomplishing what columbus had set out to do. He proved that it was impractical to sail west from Europe to the spice islands
Bartolomé de las Casas
A young priest who participated in the conquest of Cuba
said spanish treated the natives very well, but the natives were not peaceful
captured the aztecs with a sudden ambush in the morning. He was very brutal and he was spanish
a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Montezuma II was the Aztec emperor when the spanish arrived and was the first priest to rule their empire.
race of indigenous people in Mexico, conquered by Cortes(Spanish)
sea serpent in Aztec Gods who is supposed to come back and destroy Aztecs, led to confusion among Aztecs when Spanish arrived because they thought it might be him
the exchange of resources between the hemispheres
he led the spanish and conquered the Inca territory
last emperor of the inca empire
"Dispersed" or transplanted Africans and their descendants
was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
A system that included the Atlantic slave trade, and also included the trading-boom between Europe and the Americas; exchange of goods for slaves
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