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50 terms

Matter and Chromatography Study Guide

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Matter can be changed
physically or chemically
Physical Change
change in state of matter, shape or form
Chemical Change
makes a new substance
Mass change when matter is changed
doesn't change in either
Endothermic
energy is absorbed or taken in, matter gets cold
Endothermic ex.
your hot food if you don't eat it fast enough
Exothermic
energy is released, matter gets hot
Exothermic ex.
an ice cube sitting out
Pure Substances
a single kind of matter that is pure, always has a specific makeup or composition and a specific set of properties
Mixture
has two or more subtances but not chemically combined
Heterogeneous Mixture
unevenly distributed subtances in the mixture, will settle when given time
Homogeneous Mixture
well mixed, will not settle, hard, but possible to separate
Solution
A special type of mixture where a liquid has a substance dissolved in it, homogeneous mixture, hard to separate
Solute
material being dissolved
Solvent
material that dissolves the solute
Chromatography
A physical process to determine what type of substances have been mixed together by separating them from one another
Solubility
The rate or speed at which a solute dissolves in the presence of a solvent
Solutes with a high solubility
disolve quickly
Solutes with a low solubility
disolve slowly
All solutes disolve at
a different rate
Retention Factor
is defined as the distance traveled by the solute divided by the distance traveled by the solvent
one or lower
Rf will always be
Chemistry
the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
Matter
anything that has mass
Substance
a single kind of matter that is pure, having a specific makeup and specific properties
Physical property and chemical property
The two types of properties that all matter has
Element
the simplest substances that cannot be broken down by chemical or physical changes
Compound
A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined
Atom
basic particle of an element
Chemical Bond
The force that holds two atoms together
Molecule
a group of atoms that are joined together by chemical bonds that form a larger particle
Weight
the measure of the force of gravity on an object
Mass
the measure of how much matter an object contains
Volume
the amount of space that matter takes up
Density
The physical property that relates the mass and volume of an object or material
Pressure
the force pushing on a suface divided by the area of that suface
Vaporization
The change from a liquid to a gas
Gas
a state of matter with no definite shape or volume
fluid
a substance that flows
viscosity
the resistance of a liquid to flow
boiling
vaporization that occurs on and below the surface of a liquid
liquid
a state of matter that has a definite volume but no shape of its own
freezing
the change in state from a liquid to a solid
solid
a state of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape
melting
the change in state from a solid to a liquid
graph
a diagram that tells how two variables are related
Sublimation
The phase change as a substance exchanges from a solid to a gas without passing through the intermediate state of a liquid
Deposition
the phase change as a substance changes from a gas to a solid without passing throught the intermediate state of a liquid
Condensation
the phase change as a substance from a gas to a liquid
Rf equation
distance dot traveled over distance the water went