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Matter can be changed

physically or chemically

Physical Change

change in state of matter, shape or form

Chemical Change

makes a new substance

Mass change when matter is changed

doesn't change in either


energy is absorbed or taken in, matter gets cold

Endothermic ex.

your hot food if you don't eat it fast enough


energy is released, matter gets hot

Exothermic ex.

an ice cube sitting out

Pure Substances

a single kind of matter that is pure, always has a specific makeup or composition and a specific set of properties


has two or more subtances but not chemically combined

Heterogeneous Mixture

unevenly distributed subtances in the mixture, will settle when given time

Homogeneous Mixture

well mixed, will not settle, hard, but possible to separate


A special type of mixture where a liquid has a substance dissolved in it, homogeneous mixture, hard to separate


material being dissolved


material that dissolves the solute


A physical process to determine what type of substances have been mixed together by separating them from one another


The rate or speed at which a solute dissolves in the presence of a solvent

Solutes with a high solubility

disolve quickly

Solutes with a low solubility

disolve slowly

All solutes disolve at

a different rate

Retention Factor

is defined as the distance traveled by the solute divided by the distance traveled by the solvent

one or lower

Rf will always be


the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes


anything that has mass


a single kind of matter that is pure, having a specific makeup and specific properties

Physical property and chemical property

The two types of properties that all matter has


the simplest substances that cannot be broken down by chemical or physical changes


A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined


basic particle of an element

Chemical Bond

The force that holds two atoms together


a group of atoms that are joined together by chemical bonds that form a larger particle


the measure of the force of gravity on an object


the measure of how much matter an object contains


the amount of space that matter takes up


The physical property that relates the mass and volume of an object or material


the force pushing on a suface divided by the area of that suface


The change from a liquid to a gas


a state of matter with no definite shape or volume


a substance that flows


the resistance of a liquid to flow


vaporization that occurs on and below the surface of a liquid


a state of matter that has a definite volume but no shape of its own


the change in state from a liquid to a solid


a state of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape


the change in state from a solid to a liquid


a diagram that tells how two variables are related


The phase change as a substance exchanges from a solid to a gas without passing through the intermediate state of a liquid


the phase change as a substance changes from a gas to a solid without passing throught the intermediate state of a liquid


the phase change as a substance from a gas to a liquid

Rf equation

distance dot traveled over distance the water went

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