APUSH Period 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (90)
A legal relationship under which title to property is transferred to a person, called a trustee, who has control over the property, and must manage it for some other person -- called a beneficiary.
Standard Oil Company; Horizontal Consolidation
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies.
US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
Knights of Labor
Organization of individuals rather than Unions
Led by Uriah Stephens
Wanted 8 hour workday, against child/convict labor, safety laws, and equal pay for equal work
Preferred arbitration (settlement disagreement by a unbiased 3rd party)
Involved in Ohio and Baltimore RR Strike
Blockaded scab workers called Pinkertons
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers
Sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; excluded unskilled, women, and black.
Collective bargaining, supported which ever political party that agreed to its demands
Downfall: Skilled workers make up less than 30% of work force
Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
spending money for the sake of showing off your wealth
agricultural plan developed in the South after the Civil War; landowner provided tenant with house, tools, etc. in exchange for a "share" of the crop
A system in which farm workers supply their own tools and rent farmland for cash
An environmental organization in the United States. Founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by American conservationist and preservationist John Muir; first president
Department of Interior
The United States federal executive department of the US government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
African American progressive who rejected the previous ideology of Booker T. Washington (who said that self-improvement/education comes first, and then whites will learn to accept blacks on their own); this man argued that blacks need political rights in order to make any economic gains and he created the NAACP to make changes
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A suffragette who organized the first convention on women's rights
Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women.
Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
San Fransisco journalist published a provocative book in 1879 that was an instant best seller. It jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics. The book is called "Progress and Poverty" and proposes on putting a single tax on land as the solution to poverty.
Herbert Spencer; justified the competition of laissez-faire capitalism, the new racial superiority ideas, and imperialist policies.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration.
Henry Bowers in 1887
Interstate Commerce Commission;
Regulate the RR industry, the monopolistic ones.
Act required the RR rates be "reasonable and just", but did not empower the government to fix specific rates
A political theory advocating state ownership of industry. A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
1880s-1900s: a defined era in which excessive extravagance and wealth concealed mounting social problems, government corruption, and poverty
A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
Palute Tribe; Nevada
Leader of Nez Perce in Oregon. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Intended to turn NA into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing
Land Grant Colleges
Are institutions of higher education in the United States that have been designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890
A sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an industry or business so that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Largest and most important suffrage organization
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr, W side Chicago
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Colored Farmer's Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
Las Gorras Blanca's
the White Caps, group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.
Known for property destruction, not hurting people-barn burning, taking down fences, in order to get access to land
1867 by Oliver H. Kelly their main goals was to enhance the lives of isolated farmer through social and fraternal activities self improvement <they put pressure on mid western legislatures to regulate railroad monolopies>
Farmers association, sponsored social activities, community service, and political lobbying
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Acquiring control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished product, a corprate expansion strategy that involves controlling each step in the production and distribution of a product, from acquiring raw materials to manufacturing packaging and shipping
The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply
By blasting cold air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states
Created to regulate railroad prices
Sherman Antitrust Act
Anti-monopoly, increase economic competitiveness
Illegal for companies to seek a monopoly on a product, or service, or form cartels
Knights of Labor
Strike in Chicago that turned violent killing 8 policemen and a number of civilians; Workers were striking for an 8 hour work day and better working conditions.
Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
19th century American, "Rags to Riches"
A community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Indian New Deal, secured certain rights to NA and Alaskans
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
28th Governor of Penn
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
South during and after reconstruction
Editor of Atlanta Constitution headed group to build "New South"
Facilitated confederate states back into Union
Encouraged industrialization of the south
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Legalized segregation with regard to private property
Jim Crow laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Munn V Illinois
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
Wabash v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Ocala Platform 1890
National Farmers Alliance start a new political party, gov ownership of railroads, banks and telegraphs, ban on large land owning companies, graduated income tax, 8 hour work days, immigration restriction become known as Populist Party
Frederick Jackson Turner
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History": American needed a frontier [inspired by "closing of frontier"]
Founded WCTU to outlaw selling/drinking alcohol. She formed a group that walked into bars with axes.
"Kansas Cyclone"; 1st husband died of alchoholism and so she took a hatchet and single-handedly destroyed saloons
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Quoted the Gilded Age, American writer, Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
19th century French art style; focused on light and color using short, choppy brush strokes
This school of early 20th century realist painters took as their subjects the slums and streets of the nations cities and the lies of ordinary urban dwellers. They often celebrated life in the city but also advocated political and social reform.
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
Frank Lloyd Wright
..., Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Yellow journalism in competition with Hearst to sell more newspapers.
He also achieved the goal of becoming a leading national figure of the Democratic Party.
United States newspaper publisher (born in Hungary) who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911)
William R. Hearst
Newspaper publisher whose yellow journalism style helped create public pressure for Spanish-American War
Jelly Roll Morton
African American pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
"Rum, Romanticism & Rebellion"
Presidential Election of 1884
Samuel Burchard, :"We are Republicans, and don't propose to leave our party and identify ourselves with the party whose antecedents have been rum, Romanism, and rebellion.
Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.
A term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democratic after the Civil War.
Roscoe Conkling; Conklingites.
Favor in Grant running for 3rd term
They were the "traditional" Republicans who opposed Rutherford B. Hayes' civil service reform
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters, led by James G. Blaine (Moderates)
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine
Pendleton Act of 1881
federal law: government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit
McKinley Tariff 1890
raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
Over 48% tariff
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
1894 act setting the tariff at 41.3%; not as low as Democrats wanted it to be. Lowered Mckinley Tariff
Cleveland was outraged that it did not go by his campaign pledges. He had to sign it to have a lower tariff, but he was annoyed with its ineffectiveness. It also was the first bill to introduce an income tax, but that was later struck down as unconstitutional.
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Sherman Silver purchase Act 1890
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Increased the amount of silver the gov. baught for coinage, but the money supply did not increase enough to satisfy silver supporters
Bland-Allison Act 1878
A United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act that demonetizing silver. It was an attempt to bring back silver because gold was the only metallic standard before this act
Government bought a certain amount of silver dollars to put in circulation
Panic of 1873
(USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
The 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
William Jennings Bryan
3x candidate for President; former secretary of state; respected reformer; his goal in this trial was to allow citizens the right to determine what is taught in their public schools (= Matthew Harrison Brady)
Mark Hanna (R)
McKinley's campaign manager
Currency of the United States, prior to 1873, which consisted of gold or silver coins as well as U.S. treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver