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Chapter Three Era 1

Pages 4-27 in American Journey Volume 1
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Who was Olaudah Equiano: What did he have to say about his capture?
Scared, young, confused
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Gives us insight into the workings of slavery
Spanish goals between Indians/European relationship?
Spanish felt the need to directly control their indians, because they needed the Indians for work
Encomienda: Gave the Spanish the right to take a certain amount of land, Indian's, and their goods. Spanish put them to work so that they could supply goods to trade and sell for the Spanish so that they'd become wealthy. Indians did not like the Spanish: slavery at it's best.
Wanted direct control, basically exploiting them
Wanted to convert indians to catholicism
Spanish religious strategy in order to maintain a good relationship with Indians
Spanish were Roman Catholic
Spanish religious goals was to spread catholicism
Sent out missionaries, wanted to convert people
Franciscans: a religious order of brothers; front men of religion for Spanish: Wanted to convert Indians to Catholicism. Established lots of missions
Indians became workers for religious orders
Indian response to Spanish efforts to control Indians when first colonizing?
Indians resented the Spanish
Pueblo Revolt: 1680 Religious conflict and excessive Spanish demands for tribute sparked a rebellion of Indians against the Spanish. Pope gathered nearly 20,000 to go attack the spanish settlements. Spanish were trying to control all of these Indians, but were very much in the minority. So when they got angry, it got ugly. Spanish fled New Mexico. When the Spanish did come back, they treated the Indians much nicer and abolished encomienda
French goals for relationship between French/Indians
Fur- Beaver credit
Hurons were affiliated with the French
In return for beavers, the indians would get guns, blankets, liquor
Caused fights between Indians as a fight for beavers--caused overhunting
These wars are called the beaver wars: in order to get more fur they had to go onto other indian turfs and take their beavers
Military Alliance: French supported Hurons because without them, they couldn't get the beaver furs
The Indians had a good friendship/trading alliance with the French
Good allies with each other
Colonization not main focus
French religious strategy in order to maintain a good relationship with Indians
Jesuits (missionaries) who wanted to convert Native Americans to catholicism. Didn't want to lose direct control of trade with the Indians, so they decided to put economic pressure on the Indians to push conversion: they'd give guns/goods to those who converted. The jesuits were pretty strict, but they realized that if they continued to be strict, they wouldn't get anyone, so they settled with slight measures of conversion
Indian response to French efforts to control Indians when first colonizing
Tactics brought some success, but there was never this huge conversion
The Jesuits decided that small changes would be better than no changes
Beaver Wars: between the Hurons and the Iroquois over control of land and over beaver fur--french wanted beaver fur. Hurons trading with the French, and when they ran out of beaver, they went to the Iroquois land. Iroquois were also trading with the dutch and the English. Had Indians being the proxies for French and English/Dutch: Dutch wanted fur trading, so they allied themselves with native americans in New York Area. What happened was after the area became under english control the Iroquois under the English, so there was a succession
English goal for relationship between English/Indians
Set up colonies by taking over the Indian land; wanted land because English people were coming over to establish colonies
This was a problem because the Indians were already there, not happy about English coming over. So english just decided to kill them
Wanted seasonal areas to use year-round
Indians held the land in common for everyone to live on, but the English idea about property was whole different: you come in, you establish land, it's yours, and now the Indians were trespassing on their land
English religious strategy to control Indians
Had protestant missionaries, but weren't as gun-ho about converting
Had praying towns, in which Indians received instruction about the protestant religion
Weren't as successful
Indian response to English efforts on maintaining a solid relationship/control over Indians
King Philip's War: Indians all shared land, while as English believed that each had their own piece of land. As more and more english moved into the New England areas, the Indians started getting violent because the English were taking their land, which sparked a war between the Native Americans and the English, and the English won. The english then packed up these natives and sold them as slaves into the West Indies. The English cut of King Phillip's head and showcased it
Bacon's Rebellion: 1675-1676, located in Virginia, conflict between the English white planters and the Indians over territory, and Bacon was trying to lead a violent campaign over all Indians. He thought he deserved the land, dissatisfied with what the Indians and the Government were doing: burned Jamestown and governor Berkley fled. Bacon died. Shows us about the relationship between the Indians and the English at this time is not very good; much conflict is going on, and many are being killed.
Encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Repartimiento
This social device required adult Indian males to annually devote a certain number of days of work to Spanish economic enterprises. This service was often harsh and some Indians did not survive their work period. The men would usually work in mines or on the fields.
King Phillip's War 1675
Conflict in New England between Wampanoags, Narragansetts, and other Indian peoples against English settlers; sparked by english trespassing on Indian land
Bacon's Rebellion 1675-1676
In Virginia, conflict between the English white planters and the Indians over territory, and Bacon was trying to lead a violent campaign over all Indians. He thought he deserved the land, dissatisfied with what the Indians and the Government were doing: burned Jamestown and governor Berkley fled. The conflict soon turned into a rebellion of settlers against the colonial authorities. Bacon died. Shows us about the relationship between the Indians and the English at this time is not very good; much conflict is going on, and many are being killed.
The Pueblo Revolt 1680
Religious conflict (Spanish decided to stamp out the Pueblo religion) and excessive Spanish demands for tribute sparked a rebellion of Indians against the Spanish. Pope, a freed religious leader, gathered nearly 20,000 to go attack the spanish settlements. Spanish were trying to control all of these Indians, but were very much in the minority. So when they got angry, it got ugly. Spanish fled New Mexico. When the Spanish did come back, they treated the Indians much nicer and abolished encomienda
Beaver Wars
between the Hurons and the Iroquois over control of land and over beaver fur--french wanted beaver fur. Hurons trading with the French, and when they ran out of beaver, they went to the Iroquois land. Iroquois were also trading with the dutch and the English. Had Indians being the proxies for French and English/Dutch: Dutch wanted fur trading, so they allied themselves with native americans in New York Area. What happened was after the area became under english control the Iroquois under the English, so there was a succession
Indentured Servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Anthony Johnson
a black gentltman who bought his way out of slavery, bought land in Virginia and then sold it due to strict slavery laws and fear of loss of rights and property, then moved to Mayland
- Shows that slavery had an economic aspect?
Slave Code
a set of laws that formally regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people
Middle Passage
The route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Stono Rebellion 1739
South Carolina, slaves against whites; inspired in part by Spanish officials' promise of freedom for American slaves who escaped to Florida
Redemptioner
Promised to pay the costs of passage on arrival in America; sold in to slavery if could not pay their debt... length of service depended on how much they still owed
Tenant Farmer
Farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops
push pull immigration theory
people want to move from really densely populated areas to less densely populated areas (High concentration to low concentration)