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APUSH Midterm Review
This is a list of terms that you would need to know for an APUSH midterm.
Terms in this set (125)
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Also called Independent, were any of the english christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church Of England and Form independent local churches.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
joint stock companies
Companies that financed the settlement of America.
1st English settlement.
Poor people obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Colonial system of awarding a tract of land, usually fifty acres, to a person who paid for the passage of an indentured servant to the colonies. Some wealthy people in Virginia and other southern colonies accumulated huge tracts of land through this system.
Colony settled by the Pilgrims. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community.
A leader of the Puritans in England, he becomes the first governor of the Massachusets Bay Colony.
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
Maryland Act of Toleration
Act that guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians in Maryland.
Britain's decision to not enforce laws in order to get on the colonists good side during the french and indian war.
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord. Settled in Pennsylvania.
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between Britain and its colonies. They began in 1651 and ended 200 years later.
In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
A Puritan church document; In 1662, it allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress
1st Great Awakening
A movement spurred by a feeling that people had lost their religious faith powerful effect on colonies. So preachers went from town to town and got people exited about God.
A Congregationalist preacher of the Great Awakening who spoke of the fiery depths of hell.
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
French and Indian War
French and indians joined together to fight the British Colonies. Gave way to the Albany Plan and showed British/ American dominance.
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
1765, A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea.
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Also known as the Intolerable Acts. Several British laws designed to punish colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party. The most famous of the acts shut down Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for.
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
Lexington and Concord
"The Shot Heard Round the World"- The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
2nd Continental Congress
1. Sent the Olive Branch Petition 2, Created a Continental Army with George Washington as the leader. 3. Agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.
(June 17, 1775) First major battle of the American Revolution. Within two months after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, more than 15,000 colonial troops assembled near Boston to prevent the British army from occupying several hills around the city, including Bunker and Breed's hills. The colonists fortified Breed's Hill in Charlestown, across the Charles River from Boston. They withstood a cannonade from British ships in Boston Harbor and fought off assaults by 2,300 British troops but were eventually forced to retreat. Although the British won the battle, it was a Pyrrhic victory that lent considerable encouragement to the revolutionary cause. British casualties (about 1,000) and the colonists' fierce resistance convinced the British that subduing the rebels would be difficult.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
A town in southeastern Virginia, site of the last major battle of the American Revolution.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, negotiated with British for Washington.
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
Fourteen proposals by the Virginia delegation to the Constitutional Convention for creating a more powerful central government and giving states proportional representation in a bicameral legislature.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
3rd President of the United States, chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826); head of the Democratic Republicans; believed in strong state government/power; believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Appealed to middle class and underprivileged; demanded a weak central regime; bulk of power held by states; no privileges for certain classes; rule of the people; free speech; pro-French.
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
1796; Federalist; notable events include XYZ affair, the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and his appointment of John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and numerous federalist "midnight judges"
(JA) , incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
French leader who had sold Louisiana to the U.S. because he needed money to fight wars in Europe
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
Embargo Act of 1807
Act passed by congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service.
A Shawnee chief who tried to unite Native American tribes.
The United States policy guaranteeing the independence of Latin American nations and warning against European intervention in the Americas (Munroe Administration)
Causes of War of 1812
British Impressment of sailors, seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons of the War Hawks (British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the Americans to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada. (Causes of War of 1812)
Consequences of War of 1812
Trade with England immediately. Death of federalist party. (Consequences of War of 1812)
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere.
cult of domesticity
Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses
2nd Great Awakening
A religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States which led to the growth of the church.
Dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
James Fenimore Cooper
1st truly American novelist noted for his stories of Indians and the frontier life; man's relationship w/ nature & westward expansion
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
John Quincy Adams
(1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
Alexis de Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.
(1800-1831) American slave leader, he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. Called Nat Turner's Rebellion, the slave revolt was the most violent one in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed.
Tariff of 1832
A tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
As President of the Second Bank of the United States, this man occupied a position of power and responsibility that propelled him to the forefront of Jacksonian politics in the 1830s. He, along with others who regarded the bank as a necessity, realized the threat posed by the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. Jackson was bitterly opposed to the national bank, believing that it was an unconstitutional, elitist institution that bred inequalities among the people. A bitterly divisive issue, the rechartering of the bank dominated political discussion for most of the 1830s, and for many, this man became a symbol of all for which the bank stood. After Jackson's reelection, the Second Bank of the United States was doomed.
Causes of Texas Revolution
Mexico encourages U.S. settlement- asks settlers to convert to Catholicism & not bring slaves. Texans don't convert & bring slaves. Santa Anna attempts to limit autonomy of Texans- causes revolt.
A major party in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, formally established in 1836. The Whig party was anti-Jackson and represented a variety of regional interests.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Southern Defenses of Slavery
permitted in the bible; greek & roman cultures; essential to the economy; treated better than labor forces in the north; beneficial to blacks who would be blessed w/ security & christianity
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Abolitionist and owner of the newspaper "North Star" that has been called the most important African American pre-Civil War newspaper
William Henry Harrison
(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
(1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
11th President of the United States from Tennessee; committed to westward expansion; led the country during the Mexican War; U.S. annexed Texas and took over Oregon during his administration
Causes of Mexican War
The new Mexican republic would not address grievances held by United Stated citizens, who claimed property losses and personal injuries resulting for conflicts during the Mexican revolutio
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
free soil party
A political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
Consequences of Mexican War
treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo; mexico recognizes tx independence, U.S. $15mill,
Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Advantages of North
It had a superior industrial infrastructure that supported its large industries and manufacturing plants. It also had a superior navy and a larger fighting army.
Advantages of South
confederacy fought for survival, strong military tradition-leader robert e lee, many strategic advantages, didn't need to conquer them-but avoid defeat, fighting a defensive war, on familiar defensive ground
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Act passed by Congress that abolished previous state governments and set up 5 temporary military districts run by Union generals.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins.
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