One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA.
Term that encompasses genetic engineering and other techniques that make use of natural biological systems to create a product or achieve a particular result desired by humans,
Three-base sequence in messengar RNA that causes the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein, or termination of translation.
One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with guanine
The use of DNA fragment lengths resulting from restriction enzyme cleavage to identify particular individuals.
During replication, an enzyme that joins the nucleotides complementary to a DNA template.
Alternation in a gene due to deletion of a base, so that reading "frame" is shifted; can result in a nonfunctional protein.
One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine
messanger RNA (mRNA)
type of RNA formed from a DNA template and bearing coded information for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
Alterantion in a gene due to a change in a single nucleotide; results of this mutation vary.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Technique that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to produce millions of copies of a particular piece of DNA.
String of ribosomes simultaneously translating of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Type of RNA found in ribosomes that translate messenger RNAs to produce proteins.
Mucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers thaty contain the sugar ribose.
During transcription, an enzyme that joins nucleotides complementary to a DNA template.
Duplication of DNA resulting in two double helix molecules, each having one parental and one new strand.
Parental strand of DNA that serves as a guide for the complementary daughter strand produced during DNA replication.
One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA; pairs with adenine
transfer RNA (tRNA)
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
process by which a sequence of nucleic acids in RNA is used to direct the production of a chain of specific amino acids
the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment; also the movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another
during gene expression, each sequence of three nucleotide bases stands for a particular amino acid