WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?

CHAPTER 1
STUDY
PLAY
theory
a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do
structuralism
school of psychology that is concerned with discovering the basic elements of conscious experience
survey
a research method in which psychologyists collect data by asking questions to people in a particular group
B. F. Skinner
psychologist who introduced the concept of reinforcement
learning
perspective of psychoology that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
Socrates
Ancient Greek who believed that people could learn much about themselves through introspection
humanistic
perspective of psychology that stresses the importance of human consciousness, self awareness, and the capacity to make choices
psycholanalysis
school of psychology that maintains that human behavior is determined by unconcious motives
behaviorism
school of psychology that maintains that organisms behave in certain ways because they are reinforced for doing so
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
functionalism
school of psychology that focuses on how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
biological
perspective of sychology that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
behavior
any action that peole can observe or measure
Wilhelm Wundt
individual who established first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
experimental
type of psychologists who conduct research into basic processes such as the functions of the nervous system or sensation and perception
clinical
type of sychologists who focus on helping people with psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression
psychoanalytic
perspective of psychology that stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior
counseling
type of psychologist who deals with people who have adjustment problems
educational
type of psychologists who are involved in preparing standardized tests
cognitive activities
private mental processes, such as thoughts and memories
sociocultural
perspective of psychology that examines the effects of factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on human behavior
forensic
psychologists who work within the criminal justice system
environmental
type of psychologists who study the psychological effects of the environment on peoples behavior
William James
Psychologist who believed that experience is a fluid and continuous "stream of consciousness"
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