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44 terms

Enviromental Science Ch.3 and Ch.4, Holt

Chapters are titled "The Dynamic Earth"(Ch.3) and "The Organization of Life" (Ch. 4)
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ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
biotic factor
a living part of an ecosystem
Abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem
organism
an individual living thing
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population
all the members of one species in a particular area
community
a group of various species that live in the same place and interact with each other
habitat
the place an organism lives
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
evolution
change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the next
adaptation
an inherited trait that increases an organism's chance of survival and reproduction in a certain environment
artificial selection
the selective breeding of organisms by humans for specific characteristics
resistance
the ability of one or more organisms to tolerated a particular chemical designed to kill it.
archaebacteria
single celled; lack cell nuclei; reproduce by dividing in half; often found in harsh environments; e.g - methanogens
eubacteria
single celled; lack cell nuclei; reproduce by dividing half; incredibly common; e.g - blue-green algae
fungus
an organism whose cells have nuclei and cell walls.
absorb their food through body surface; have cell walls; most live on land
protists
diverse group of one-celled organisms and their many celled relatives. They are often classified as plant-like, animal-like, and fungus-like. most live in water. Malaria is a protist
Gymnosperm
woody plants that produce seeds, but their seeds are not enclosed in fruits
angiosperm
a flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit
invertebrates
animals that lack backbones
vertebrates
animals that have backbones
geosphere
the solid part of the Earth that consists of all rock, and the soils and sediments on Earth's surface
crust
Earth's thin outer layer composed almost entirely of light elements
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
core
Earth's innermost layer composed of the densest elements
lithosphere
Earth's outer layer that is cool and rigid and includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. It is made up of tectonic plates.
asthenosphere
the layer beneath the lithosphere and mesosphere; tectonic plates rest on it
tectonic plates
Sections of the Earth's lithosphere that rest on top and glide across the underlying asthenosphere
erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
atmosphere
the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
troposphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer
stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer
ozone
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
radiation
transfer of energy across space
conduction
heat transfer by direct contact
convection
the transfer of heat by air currents
greenhouse effect
the process in which gases trap heat near the Earth
water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
condensation
the process in which water vapor forms water droplets on dust particles
precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
salinity
the relative proportion of salt in a solution
fresh water
water that contains insignificant amounts of salts, as in rivers and lakes
biosphere
Thin zone of the earth that supports all life