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elders that represented the individual congregations of Calvinists, directly shaping policy


sponsored a centralized episcopal church system hierarchically arranged from pope to parish priest and stressed unquestioniong obedience to the person at the top.


a successor to mannerism that presented life in a grandise, raw, 3-d way


rulers who put politics before religion


a term for French protestants

Catherine de Medicis

became regent for her minor son and tried unsuccessfullyt to reconcile the Protestant and Catholic factions. she tried to allie with the Protestants, but this ended when the duke of Guise massacred protestant worshippers in Vassy

Saint Bartholomew's day massacre

Catherine gave support in a panic mde and on August 22 1572 after Huguenot Henry of navarre married the king's protestant sisster, coligny was struck down but a bullet which catherine had been a part of the plot, then she convinced cahrles that a huguenot coup was affot so only the swift execution of protestant leaders could save crown and then on saint bartolomew's day 2 days later 3000 Hugenots were killed and Paris and 20000 were killed total

First blast of the trumpet against the terrible regiment of women 1558

John Knox declared the teh remobal of a heathen tryant was a Christain duty


One of 3 major works in 1573 that was a huanist argument that the representatvie estates general of france historically held higher authority thatn the french kig

On the Right of Magistrates over their subjects 1574

justified the correction and the overthrow of tyrannical rulers by lower authorities

Defense of Liberty against tyrants 1579

admonished princes, nobles, and magistrates beneath the king, as guardians of the rights of the body politic, to take up arms against tyranny in otehr lands

Henry of Navarre

becomes the king of France, Henry IV, and had the duke and cardinal of Guise assassinated.

Philip II of Spain

an intensely catholic military supreme that was a great leader, but over extends the army, and spain collapses after he gets killed

Spanish Fury

Spanish mercenaried ran amok and 7000 people died in the street

Mary I

Queen o f england from 1553-1558 who was Catholic and tried to make all of england catholic. She marries Philip II of spain. She is known as bloody mary because she killed many protestants.

Elizabeth I 1558-1603

rules after Mary and started out as a politique, she had to be protestant or else she would be an ilegitamate heir to the thrown, makes protestant official relgion of england, but ends up having to kill some catholics

thirty nine articles 1563

made a moderate protestantism the official religion within the church of england


an alternative national church of semiautonomous congregations governed by representive presbyteries


Extreme puritans that wanted every congregation to be autonomous, a law unto itslef, with neither higher episcopal nor presbyterian control

Thirty years war

A war starting with the HRE and extending to spain and other nations that had 4 periods that ended up killing 1/3 of the population

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended hostilities in the HRE that divided the empire into nation states and the Peace of Augsburg still applies

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