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a theory meaning one thing depends on other things.

Contingency approaches

approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively.

Fielder's contingency model

a model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leader style to the situation

Situational theory

Hersey and Blanchard's extension of the leadership grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important elements of the situation, and consequently, of determining effective leader behavior.

Path-goal theory

a contingency approach to leadership in which the leader's responsibility is to increase subordinates' motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards

Vroom-Jago contingency model

a contingency model that focuses on varying degrees of participative leadership, and how each level of participation influences quality and accountability of decisions


a situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant.


a situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

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