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consumer Behavior chap. 3
Terms in this set (38)
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Learning is an Ongoing Process
-Constantly being revised
-Can be either simple association (logo recognition) or complex cognitive activity (writing an essay)
Behavioral Learning Theories
Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
Two major behavioral approaches to learning
1) Classical Conditioning
2) Instrumental Conditioning
Behavior and expectations shaped by feedback from the environment.
-: a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own.
Actions result in rewards and punishments, which influence future responses to similar situations.
-also, operant conditioning): the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes.
Ivan Pavlov's Dogs
-Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - Naturally capable of causing a response (UCR).
-Conditioned stimulus (CS) - Does not initially cause a response
-Conditioned response (CR) - Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS. Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR.
Tendency of a stimulus similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses
-Masked branding: Deliberately hiding a product's true origin
Occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS.
Applications of Stimulus Generalization
Product line extensions
Applications of Stimulus Discrimination
-Consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitors
-Unique attributes of the brand
Instrumental ("Operant") Conditioning
Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomes
Occurs one of three ways:
When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained.
Reinforcement of Consumption
-Follow-up phone calls
-Reinforces regular purchases by giving them rewards with values that increase along with the amount purchased, e.g., frequent flyer miles
-Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviors
-Learning occurs as a result of vicarious, rather than direct, experience.
-Marketers can reinforce or punish consumers indirectly by showing what happens to desirable / attractive models who do or do not use their products.
-Attractiveness can be based on several components (e.g. physical attractiveness, expertise, similarity to the evaluator)
Types of meaning
-Sensory meaning (e.g. color or shape)
-Sense of familiarity (e.g. seeing a food that we have tasted)
-Semantic meaning: (e.g. rich people drink champagne)
-Episodic memories: Personally relevant events
-Flashbulb memories: Especially vivid associations
-Narrative: Linear mental representation of information
Very temporary storage of information we receive from our senses
Short-Term Memory (STM):
Limited period of time & limited capacity
Working memory (i.e., holds information we are currently processing)
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Can retain information for a long period of time
Elaboration rehearsal is required: Process involves thinking about a stimulus and relating it to information already in memory
Short-Term Memory (STM):
Long-Term Memory (LTM):
Multiple Store Models of Memory
Traditional perspective which assumes that STM & LTM are separate systems
Activation Models of Memory
-Argues that different levels of processing occur depending on the nature of the processing task.
-The more effort it takes to process information, the more likely that information will be placed in LTM.
-Contains many bits of related information organized according to some set of relationships
Knowledge structures: Complex "spider webs" filled with pieces of data
-Hierarchical processing model: Message is processed in a bottom-up fashion (i.e., starts at a basic level and is subject to increasingly complex processing which requires increased cognitive capacity)
-Node: A concept related to a category
An associative network is developed as links form between nodes.
A process which allows consumers to shift back and forth between levels of meaning
Levels of Knowledge
-Knowledge is coded at different levels of abstraction and complexity.
-Proposition (a.k.a. belief): A larger unit of meaning (i.e., formed by combinations of nodes)
-Schema: A cognitive framework (comprised of propositions) developed through experience
-Script: A type of schema consisting of a sequence of events expected by an individual
Factors Influencing Retrieval
Physiological Factors (e.g. age)
--Pioneering brand: First brand to enter a market. Is generally easier to retrieve from memory.
--Descriptive brand names easier to recall than names that do no provide cues to what the product is.
(a.k.a. mood congruence effect) A process by which consumers are better able to access info if their mood is the same at the time of their recall as when the info was learned.
Familiarity and Recall
Prior familiarity enhances recall
Salience and Recall
-Salience: The prominence or level of activation of stimuli in memory
-Von Restorff Effect: Any technique that increases the novelty of a stimulus also improves recall.
Factors Influencing Forgetting
Structural changes in the brain produced by learning simply go away.
Consumers forget stimulus-response associations when new responses to the same or similar stimuli are learned.
As new responses are learned, a stimulus loses its effectiveness in retrieving the old response.
--Part-list Cueing Effect:
When only a portion of the items in a category are presented to consumers, the omitted items are not as easily recalled.
Products and ads can serve as powerful retrieval cues.
--Autobiographical memories: Consumer memories related to their own past.
--Mnemonic stimuli: Aspects of a consumer's possessions that serve as a form of external memory which prompts the retrieval of episodic memories.
The Marketing Power of Nostalgia
--Spontaneous recovery: The ability of a stimulus to evoke a response years after it is initially perceived
Typical recognition test: Subjects are shown ads and asked if they have seen them before.
Typical recall test: Subjects are asked to independently think of what they have seen without being prompted first.
The Starch Test
A widely used commercial measure of advertising recall for magazines