How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

41 terms

BIO 213 Test 1 Part 2

STUDY
PLAY
Sexual reproduction relies on what type of cell division?
meiosis
Define meiosis
A type of cell division in which the daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Asexual reproduction relies on what type of cell division?
mitosis
Define mitosis
A type of cell division in which the daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell
The term for separate sexes. These types of organisms have male and females as separate beings.
dioecious
The term for both sexes being present in one organism
monoecious
What is another term for monoecious?
hermaphrodite
Define synchronous hermaphroditism
the condition in which both sexes are functional at the same time
Define asynchronous hermaphroditism
the condition in which both sexes are not functional at the same time
Define protogyny
A type of asynchronous hermaphroditism in which the organism functions first as a female and then as a male
Define protandry
A type of asynchronous hermaphroditism in which the organism functions first as a male and then as a female
What is the benefit of asynchronous hermaphroditism?
Prevents self-fertilization which leads to greater genetic diversity of the population
Define heterotroph
an organism that takes in nutrients from an external source
Define autotroph
an organism that produce their own nutrients via photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Define chemosynthesis
the process by which some organisms produce their food through chemical mechanisms that do not require light
Define saprotroph
an organism that takes in nutrients from decaying organic matter
Define symbiosis
A relationship in which members of different species live in close contact with each other and at least one of them benefits from the relationship
Define commensalism
a type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms benefits and the other is not affected
Give an example of commensalism
- tiny animals benefit from living among the gills of crayfish (transportation, protection, food scraps)

- cattle birds benefit from the natural movement of cattle that stirs up insects

- little worms benefit from living in the ureters of frogs and toads (passing nutrients, protection)
Define mutualism
a type of symbiosis in which both of the organisms benefit
Give an example of mutualism
clown fish live among sea anemones. Fish are protected by its tentacles, the sea anemone receives "food scraps"
Define parasitism
a type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is harmed
Define vector
an animal that transports a parasite to a new host
Describe the parasite life cycle
larva > immature form > adult form.

Each stage may require a different host species or group of related hosts.
Define intermediate host
the host that the larval form of parasites live in, allows for development of immature form
Define definitive host
the host that the adult form of parasite lives in
Define parasitoidism
A type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is eventually killed
Give an example of parasitoidism
Tiny wasps are parasitioids that lay their eggs on other insects so that their larvae can feed
Define homologous
having a common origin in the embryo
Define analogous
having a similar function
Define asymmetry
a condition in which an organism has uneveven distribution of components
What type of organisms are asymmetrical?
sponges
Define symmetry
a condition in which an organism has even distribution of components
Define radial symmetry
components are arranged around the central, oral-aboral axis
Define bilateral symmetry
components are evenly distributed along the longitudinal axis
Define cephalization
the concentration of nervous and sensory tissues at the anterior end of the animal
What type of organisms have bilateral symmetry?
most in k. Animalia
Define biradial symmetry
components are arranged in an oval configuration around the oral-aboral axis
What type of organisms have biradial symmetry?
sea anemones
Describe the hydrostatic skeleton
An skeleton based on water which is noncompressible. Muscles can exert force to cause movement of solution which results in locomotion.
What type of organisms have hydrostatic skeletons?
earthworms