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processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

(Abraham's Maslow's) Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow hyphothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs: PHYSIOLOGICAL, SAFETY, SOCIAL, ESTEEM, SELF-ACTUALIZATION. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant

Lower Order Needs

Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs


the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming

Higher-Order Needs

needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

Theory X

managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced to perform

Theory Y

the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction

Two-Factor Theory

A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.

Hygiene Factors

Factors - such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary - that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.

Mclelland's theory of needs

A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation

Need for Acheivement (nAch)

the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed

Need for power (nPower)

the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise

Need for affiliated (nAff)

the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Self-determination theory

A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been perviously intrinsically rewarding trends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling


The degree to which people's reason for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values

Goal-Setting Theory

a theory that syas that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance

Management by objectives

a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress


An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task

Reinforcement Theory

Individual's purposes direct his action. A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consqeunces


a theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. Ex: to get a high grade on a test, you supply the correct answers

Social-Learning Theory

The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience

Equity Theory

A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities

Distributive justice

Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals

Organizational Justice

an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice

Procedural Justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards

Interactional justice

the perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect

Expectancy Theory

a theory that syas that this strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual

Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation Chart

pg. 228

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