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processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
(Abraham's Maslow's) Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow hyphothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs: PHYSIOLOGICAL, SAFETY, SOCIAL, ESTEEM, SELF-ACTUALIZATION. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced to perform
the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
Factors - such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary - that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
Mclelland's theory of needs
A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
Need for Acheivement (nAch)
the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
Need for power (nPower)
the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise
A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been perviously intrinsically rewarding trends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling
The degree to which people's reason for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values
a theory that syas that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
Management by objectives
a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
Individual's purposes direct his action. A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consqeunces
a theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. Ex: to get a high grade on a test, you supply the correct answers
A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
the perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect
a theory that syas that this strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
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