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remote sensing

the scanning of the Earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it

functional region (nodal)

an area organized around a node or focal point

formal region (uniform)

an area in which everyone shares in one or moree distinctive characteristics


theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions. but people have ability to adjust to physical environment and choose course of action from many alternatives

environmental determinism

19th-20th study of geographic that argue that general laws sought by human geographers found in physical sciences. Geographers therefor study of how physical environment caused human activities.

Land Ordinance of 1785

land that divided much of U.S. into system of township to facilitate that sale of land of settlers

Longitude (meridian)

numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian

latitude (parallel)

numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on globe and measuring distance North and South of equator

Cultural landscape

fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group


the physical character of a place


the name given to a portion of Earth's surface

dot map

used to locate each occurcence of a phenomenon

proportional symbol map

uses symbols of different sizes to represent data associated with different areas or locations within the map

Isoline map

a line on a map, chart or graph connecting points of equal value also called isograms

choropleth map

map showing the distribution of a phenomen usually using various colors, color graduation are correlated to the density per unit area of the phenomenon.


defined as the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground

cartogram map

presentation of statistical data in geographical distribution on a map


pull or twist out of shape


estimate or forecast of a future situation or trend based on a study of present ones

Global Positioning System (GIS)

space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides locations and time information in all weather anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellite

Geographic Information System (GIS)

system designed to capture, store, manipulate, anaylze, manage and present all types of geographically referenced data.

arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by the total land area

physiological density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land which is land suitable for agriculture

agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture


(dispersed/scattered or clustered/agglomerated) the spread of something over a given area


the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area


the region from which innovative idea originate

relocation diffusion

the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another

expansion diffusion

the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process

hierarchial diffusion

the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

contagious diffusion

the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population

stimulus diffusion

the spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected

distance decay

the diminishing in importance and eventually disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin

time (space compression

the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.

time zone

is a region on Earth that has a uniform, legally mandated standard time.

Carl Saur

He was largely responsible for shifting the focus of American geography from environmental "determinism" to the study of landscape and cultural geography.

absolute location

is a way of describing the position of an object or place, perhaps (but not limited to) on the surface of the earth.

relative location

the location of a place in relation to another place

perceptual region

a point or place in relation to another point or place

carl Ritter

one of the founders of modern geography

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