Consumer Behavior chapt. 4
Terms in this set (34)
-Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do.
-Once a need is aroused, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need.
Needs can be
-Utilitarian: a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit.
-Hedonic: an experiential need, involving emotional responses or fantasies.
The end state that is desired by the consumer
The degree of arousal present due to a discrepancy between the consumer's present state and some ideal state
A manifestation of a need created by personal and cultural factors
Motivation can be described in terms of
-Strength: The pull it exerts on the consumer
-Direction: The particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension
-A person must choose between two desirable alternatives.
-Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another.
--Dissonance Reduction: Process by which people are motivated to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviors.
Exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time.
Consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives.
Henry Murray need dimensions
-Autonomy: Being independent
-Defendance: Defending the self against criticism
-Play: Engaging in pleasurable activities
Specific Needs and Buying Behavior:
-Need for achievement: To attain personal accomplishment
-Need for affiliation: To be in the company of others
-Need for power: To control one's environment
-Need for uniqueness: To assert one's individual identity
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs that specifies certain levels of motives.
-A person's perceived relevance of the object based on his/her inherent needs, values, and interests.
-Object: A product or brand
Levels of Involvement: Inertia to Passion
-Type of information processing depends on the consumer's level of involvement
-Simple processing: Only the basic features of the message are considered
-Elaboration: Incoming information is linked to preexisting knowledge
Flow state occurs when consumers are truly involved
-Sense of control
-Distorted sense of time
Related to a consumer's level of interest in a particular product
(a.k.a. advertising involvement) Refers to a consumer's interest in processing marketing communications
Purchase Situation Involvement
Refers to the importance of a product to a consumer's self-concept
Teasing out the Dimensions of Involvement
-Personal interest in a product category
-Probability of making a bad purchase
-Pleasure value of the product category
-How closely the product is related to the self
Segmenting by Involvement Levels
Involvement is a useful basis for market segmentation
Strategies to Increase Involvement
--Appeal to hedonic needs
e.g. using sensory appeals to generate attention
--Use novel stimuli
e.g. unusual cinematography, sudden silences, etc.
--Use prominent stimuli
e.g. larger ads, more color
--Include celebrity endorsers
--Build a bond with consumers
--Maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (e.g. freedom is better than slavery)
General set of values that uniquely define a culture
--Value system: A culture's unique set of rankings of the relative importance of universal values.
Learning the value systems of one's own culture
Learning the value system of another culture
Cultural beliefs are taught by socialization agents (i.e., parents, friends, and teachers)
Research has tended to classify values as being
-Cultural such as security or happiness,
-Consumption-specific such as convenient shopping or prompt service,
-Product-specific such as ease of use or durability
The Rokeach Value Survey identified
-Terminal Values - desired end-states that apply to many cultures,
-Instrumental Values - composed of actions needed to achieve these terminal values.
The List of Values (LOV) Scale
-Developed to isolate values with more direct marketing applications
-Identifies nine (9) consumer segments based on the values they endorse
-Relates each value to differences in consumption
Large-scale commercial surveys
A technique that uncovers consumers' associations between attributes and consequences
Hierarchical value maps
Show how product attributes are linked to desired end states
Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy (MECCAS):
Materialism refers to the importance people attach to worldly possessions
a focus on personal health merging with a growing interest in global health
LOHAS (lifestyles of health and sustainability): Consumers who
--Worry about the environment
Want products to be produced in a sustainable way
-Spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential
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