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51 terms

Ancient Middle East

STUDY
PLAY
10 Commandments
Will need to write out 5 of the 10
1 -YOU SHALL HAVE NO OTHER "GODS" BEFORE ME
2 -YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FOR YOURSELF AN IDOL
3 -YOU SHALL NOT TAKE THE NAME OF GOD IN VAIN
4 -REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY TO KEEP IT HOLY
5 -HONOR YOUR FATHER AND YOUR MOTHER
6 -YOU SHALL NOT MURDER
7 -YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY
8 -YOU SHALL NOT STEAL
9 -YOU SHALL NOT LIE
10 -YOU SHALL NOT COVET
Solomon
Known for his wisdom, allegedly met the Queen of Sheba, Built the 1st temple to house the Ark of the Covenant, had 700 wives which caused him to turn away from God
David
Established Jerusalem as a capital and killed the Philistine Goliath
Saul
1st king of a united kingdom, tried to kill David because he was jealous of him
Torah
most holy of sacred Jewish writings, first 5 books of the Old Testament
Tanakh
Jewish Bible
Ethical monotheism
Belief that Jews must show obedience to God by obeying the law (10 Commandments) and atoning for sins
Bar Mitzvah
the coming of age ceremony for 13 year old Jewish boys
Kosher
dietary laws and precise methods for slaughter and food preparation
Rosh Hashanah
On this day God judges all his people and decides their fate in the next year
Yom Kippur
most important holiday - last opportunity to change God's judgement of ones deeds in the previous year
Hanukkah
includes the ritual of lighting the candles
Passover
Commemorates the Exodus
Issac
His father was willing to sacrifice him to prove his loyalty to God
Jacob
His 12 sons established the 12 Tribes of Israel
Abraham
considered to be the father of Judaism
Moses
Led the Hebrew slaves out of Israel and received the 10 Commandments on Mount Sinai
Hammurabi's Code
punishment was based on status, established the state as the authority and many laws dealt with property, was a public record of all existing laws
The Temple Mount
believed to be the place where Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son and the 1st temple was built
The Exodus
escape of the enslaved Hebrews from Egypt
monotheistic
the worship of one God, early Hebrews
"Crossroads of the World"
referred to the Fertile Crescent because it was a route connecting Asia, Europe and Africa, which allowed for the constant exchange of ideas, area extended from persian Gulf to the Red Sea
city-states
political unit made up of a city and surrounding lands
empire
the uniting of several peoples/nations under one ruler
ziggurats
baked brick temples
cultural diffusion
process by which the ideas, beliefs and products of one people are shared and accepted by another people
cuneiform
system of writing in which symbols are carved with a stylus into clay tablets
Anatolia
occupied by the Hittites, in Asia Minor
Carthage
Phoenician port city in North Africa
Sardis
Lydian capital
Nineveh
capital of Assyrian Empire
Palestine
known as Canaan or the Kingdom of Israel, homeland of the Hebrews
Tyre/Sidon
powerful city-state established by the sea faring merchants
Jerusalem
city that King David made into a great capital
Ur
Sumerian city-state
Susa
important city state to the Persians
Mesopotamia
area known as the "land between two rivers"
Sargon
established the first empire in recorded history
Zoroaster
taught that people had to choose between good and evil
Cyrus
known for his tolerance in the Persian Empire
Nebuchadnezzar
a strong leader of the Chaldeans
Phoenicians
purple dye, lumber from the Lebanon Mts. was an important resource, helped develop the modern alphabet
Sumerians
ruled by priest-kings, a math system based on 60, built ziggurats, used cuneiform, first to use and develop the arch, Gilgamesh was a famous king
Akkadians
first empire in recorded history, their language became the first international language in the FC
Assyrians
adopted gods of conquered peoples, first empire to replace priest kings with military leaders, first to use cavalry and empire included the entire FC and the Nile, followed a policy of "deport and depopulate" with conquered people, built one of the world's first libraries
Persians
built the Royal Road, created a postal system, followed a policy of tolerance, used the kings "eyes and ears" to keep peace in the kingdom, established a system of standard measures and had the largest empire and divided it into satraps
Babylonians
located mainly in the southern part of the FC, gave women some rights,
Chaldeans
known for their advancements in math and astronomy and created on of the wonders of the ancient world
Hittites
located in Asia Minor, frist to smelt iron and create iron weapons and war chariots, had a more forgiving law code
Lydians
Created the first system of coined money
flooding in the FC
was unpredictable and deposited silt which the farmers depended on