the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the processing of information into the memory system
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
a newer understanding of short term memory that involves conscious, active processing in incoming information and of information retrieved from long term memory
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency of well learned information such as word meanings
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the conscious repetition of information
the tendency for distributed study to yield better long term retention
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first things in a list
the encoding of picture images
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
the encoding of meaning including the meaning of words
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing
memory aids; using imagery or organizational devices
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
the loss of memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
helps process explicit memories for storage
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of partcular associations in memory
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
method of loci
a mnemonic with which one associates items to be remembered with a specific location (see also key word, peg word)
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