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258 terms

Macromolecules

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Amino acids
The building blocks, or monomers of proteins, 20 different types exist, contain a middle carbon, an NH2 group, a COOH group, and an spot where they differ from other amino acids, the "R" group
Benedicts
Indicator used to test for simple sugars and most disaccharides (not sucrose), changes from blue to orange in the presence of sugars, when heated
Biuret
Indicator used to test for proteins, changes from blue to purple in the presence of proteins
Body parts made of carbohydrates
Cellulose - plant cell walls
Chitin
animal exoskeletons (think lobster)
Body parts made of lipids
Fat, cell membranes
Body parts made of proteins
Hair, nails, muscle, cartilage - just about all of you
Carbohydrates
Sugar-based molecules whose main role in animals is to supply energy. Some carbohydrates (cellulose and chitin) provide structure
Cellulose
Structural polysaccharide in plants, straight chains of hundreds of sugars, stiff and rigid, forms the cell walls of plants, also called fiber, if we eat it, we cannot break it apart for energy
Chitin
Animal polysaccharide for structure, straight chain of hundreds of sugars, stiff and rigid, forms the exoskeletons of arthropods (insects, crabs, lobsters) and the cell walls of fungi
Covalent bonds
Strong bonds that link sugars together to form disaccharides and polysaccharides, that link amino acids together to form proteins, and that link fatty acids and glycerol together to form lipids
Defense Proteins
Proteins that fight disease, invaders, and predators, such as antibodies and venoms
Dehydration synthesis or condensation
To synthesize means to build, this reaction links smaller pieces into larger molecules, it connects sugars to form polysaccharides (energy storage or structure), connects amino acid to form proteins (for structure, transport, defense, or enzymes), and connects fatty acids with glycerol to form fats and oils (store energy)
Denatured
An uncoiled, or unraveled protein, the protein has lost its shape due to high temperatures or strong chemicals, its weak bonds have broken and the protein cannot perform its job, since it no longer "fits" with other molecules
enzymes
proteins that speed up the reactions in cells
Fatty acids
Three of these are linked together to form fats and oils, long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms that do not like water, may be straight or bent, energy-rich bonds, combine with glycerol to form fats and oils
Foods that contain carbohydrate
fruits, vegetables, rice, bread, pasta, cereals, whole grain is always better
Foods that contain lipids
ice cream, nuts, vegetable oils, meat
Foods that contain protein
meat, fish, dairy products, beans, nuts, chicken, pork
Fructose
Simple sugar, very sweet, found in fruits
Glucose
The simple sugar that fuels all cells, sweet, C6H12O6, broken apart for immediate energy
Glycogen
Animal polysaccharide, how animals store their extra sugars for later use, a branched polysaccharide, found in the liver and in muscle, broken apart when you need sugars for fuel
Hydrogen bonds
Weak bonds that give proteins their three-dimensional shape, easily broken, these bonds form between "R" groups of amino acids in the chain, causing the chain to twist and bend
Hydrolysis
The reaction that breaks a big molecule into its smaller building blocks, turns proteins into amino acids, turns polysaccharides into sugars (releases energy), and turns fats into fatty acids (releases energy), lysis means to cut and hydro means requires water, so hydrolysis cuts a large molecule into pieces, your cells use these pieces
Iodine
Indicator used to test for starch, changes from yellow to blue/black when starch is present
Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges
All of the weak bonds between the "R" groups of amino acids in a protein that give the protein its three-dimensional shape, these attractions, along with uncharged amino acids desire to avoid water, cause a protein to automatically fold into a complex shape
Lactose
Double sugar, found in milk, sweet, how mammals transport sugars to their babies
Lipids
Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids, these molecules do not dissolve in water, function in long-term energy storage, cushioning, insulation, water-proofing, and communication, 9 Calories per gram
Macromolecules
Very large molecules, based on the element carbon, include carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, the building blocks of life
Membrane lipids
Lipids with two tails that surround all cells
Motion proteins
Proteins involved in movement, such as actin and myosin in your muscles
Polysaccharides
Hundreds of sugars linked together to store energy or to provide structure, includes starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin
Primary structure
The order of amino acids in a protein, the amino acids laid out in a straight chain, before the chain starts to fold and twist, order of amino acids in a protein is determined by an organism's DNA
Protein Structure
May be long, thin strands or globular, essential for a protein to do its job, four levels exist, held together by weak bonds
Proteins
Chains of amino acids that fold into complex three-dimensional shapes
Quaternary structure (4th)
Two or more chains of amino acids that link together, a big, complex protein
R group
The part of an amino acid that varies, may be big or small, charged or not charged
Saturated fats
Solids at room temperature, contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, their tails are straight, the unhealthy fats, often from animals
Secondary structure
Repeated coiling or folding of regions of a protein due to attractions between its amino acids, look for coils and sheets
Simple sugars
The smallest sugars, the building blocks of all carbohydrates, usually shaped like a hexagon, taste sweet, also called monosaccharides, includes glucose and fructose
Starch
Plant polysaccharide, how plants store their extra sugars, animals eat starch and break it apart for energy, a branched polysaccharide, not sweet
Strong bonds
Bonds that link building blocks together, such as those between sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids
Structural proteins
Proteins that give organisms their shape, such as collage which forms cartilage and keratin which forms hair and nails
Sucrose
Table sugar, a double sugar, sweet, how plants transport sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant body
Tertiary structure (3rd)
A chain of amino acids that folds and twists upon itself, has a globular shape, water-loving amino acids are on the outside and water-hating amino acids are on the inside
Transport proteins
Proteins that move materials within your body and within your cells, such as hemoglobin
Unsaturated fats
Liquids at room temperature, oils, contain fewer hydrogen atoms, their tails are bent, the healthy fats from plants
acids
solutions that have a low pH (less than 7) are____________.
bases
solutions that have a high pH (greater than 7) are ______________.
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
List the four organic macromolecules talked about in class (in alphabetical order with commas in between)
cohesion
A property of water that makes water molecules like to stick to each other.
homeostasis
process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in the external environment (like a thermostat)
hydrogen
A weak bond that attracts water molecules to each other is called a ___________ bond.
hydrophilic
molecules that DO mix with water are _______________.
hydrophobic
molecules that do NOT mix with water are ____________.
macromolecule
A giant molecule in living cells, composed of thousands of smaller molecules is a ________________.
molecule
A structure that results when two or more atoms are joined together by sharing electrons
monomer
A building blocks of a polymer
organic
Molecules that contain carbon are known as _________ molecules.
polymer
A large compound formed from many monomers
water
This molecule is important to maintaining homeostasis in our bodies, it is needed for key reactions, it makes up the majority of our body, and it transports materials throughout the body
water
this molecule makes up the majority of your body
carbohydrate examples
sugars, starches, glycogen
carbohydrate subunit
1C:2H:1O
cellulose
A polysaccharide that provides structural suppost for plants.
chitin
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
disaccharide
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
enzyme
protein that speed up chemical reaction
function of carbohydrates
energy source, stucture
function of lipids
long term energy storage, reserved energy, cell membrane
function of nucleic acids
code for proteins and genetic material
function of proteins
3rd source of energy, helps builds and repairs muscle tissue, makes hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and pigments
glycogen
a polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals
lipid examples
fats, oils, and waxes
lipid subunit
glycerol with fatty acid
macromolecule
made in living systems from smaller building blocks covalently bonded; four classes: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule
nucleic acid examples
DNA, RNA
nucleic acid subunit
nucleotides
phospholipid
type of macromolecule that makes up the cell membrane
polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
protein examples
enzymes, hemoglobin, keratin
protein subunit
amino acids held together by peptide bonds
saturated fats
"bad" fats - artery clogging
starch
a polysaccharide that stores glucose in plants
sucrose
glucose + fructose
unsaturated fats
"good" fats
what names of enzymes end with
-ase
what names of sugars end with
-ose
3 Jobs of Protein
1. Build cells
2. Act as hormones and enzymes
3. Do most of the cell work
3 things DNA and RNA have in common
Both are made of phosphates, sugars, and bases
Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP--the cell's energy molecule
Alcohols end in
"ol"
Carbon
2nd most common ingredient in cells
Catalyst
Starts and/or speeds up a process
Chemical Bond
Where the energy is stored and releases energy when broken
Dehydration Synthesis
Removing a water molecule from 2 monosaccharides causing them to bond into a disaccharide; a type of reaction in which 2 molecules are bonded together by the removal of a water molecule
Double helix
Shape of DNA, 2 strands
Glycogen
How animals store energy
Hydrocarbons
Source of energy, found in fat molecules
Hydrolysis
Adding water to a disaccharide will dissolve the bond and create 2 monosaccharides; the process by which molecules are broken apart by the addition of a water molecule
Isomers
molecules with the same formula but with different structures (like sucrose and fructose)
mono, di, tri, and poly
one, two, three, and many
Nucleic acid
store hereditary info for making all of a body's proteins
Polymer
a large molecule made from smaller monomers; also called macromolecule
Polypeptide
long chains of proteins
Protein
Polymer made of amino acid monomers
Saccharides
sugar
Saturated Fat
single-bonded and solid at room temperature like butter and margarine
Shape
Determines the molecules function
Single helix
Shape of RNA, 1 strand
Starch
How plants store energy
Sugars end in
"ose"
Universal Solvent
water--dissolves bonds in molecules
Unsaturated Fat
double-bonded and liquid at room temperature like olive oil and vegetable oil
Lugol's solution (IKI)
indicator used to detect starch
Benedict's solution
indicator used to detect sugars
Biuret's solution
indicator used to detect proteins
Grease spot test
used to detect fats and oils
quantitative analysis
test that determines the amount of a substance
qualitative analysis
test that determines the presence or absence of a substance
inorganic
compound lacking carbon
organic
compound containing carbon, with 3 notable exceptions
carbohydrates
sugars and starches
proteins
made of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
saturated fats
solid at room temperature due to single bonds between carbons
unsaturated fats
oils; liquids at room temperature due to double bonds between some carbons.
starch
made up of many glucoses; used for short-term energy storage
lipids
hydrophobic organic compounds inculding fats, oils, waxes and steroids
negative control
used for comparing with your sample test; indicates the sample lacks the substance for which one is testing
positive control
used for comparing with your sample test; indicates the sample has the substance for which one is testing
colorimetric test
indicates the presence of a substance by exhibiting a color change
20
There are __________ (number) amino acids that vary in shape, size, and chemical properties
active site
the region where an enzyme binds to its substrate
amino acids
The monomers of proteins are _________ _________.
amylase
this is a protein used to digest starch.
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
The elements found in proteins are... (alphabetical order separated by comas)
catalyst
any substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used or changed in the reaction is a ________.
enzymes
special proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
enzymes
these special proteins are involved in all life processes including digestion, energy storage, and release
essential
Our body makes 12 of the 20 required amino acids, however the other 8 are called ______________ amino acids because they must be obtained from the foods that we eat.
hemoglobin
this is a protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen
keratin
This is a protein abundant in our skin, hair, and nails.
lactase
this is a protein used to digest the sugar found in milk.
protein
An enzyme is what type of organic compound?
proteins
complex polymers made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
proteins
Polymers of molecules called amino acids
substrate
the substance an enzyme acts on
benedicts
This solution tests for monosaccharides
black
The color of a positive iodine test (test for starch) is __________.
carbohydrates
These macromolecules are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (always in a 1:2:1 ratio)
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Carbohydrates are made up of the elements .... (put them in alphabetical order with commas in-between)
cellulose
a polysaccharide that gives plants their strength; it is also dietary fiber
cellulose
The complex carbohydrate __________ also called fiber helps to keep water and food moving through your digestive and excretory systems
cellulose
This complex carbohydrate/polysaccharide is not able to be broken down by your digestive system
disaccharide
a double sugar
disaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is lactose?
disaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is sucrose?
fructose
a monosaccharide found in fruit; it is the sweetest sugar
fructose, glucose
Sucrose is made up of what two sugars (put them in alphabetical order with a comma between them)
galactose, glucose
Lactose is made up of what two sugars (put them in alphabetical order with a comma between them)
glucose
a monosaccharide that is made during photosynthesis and broken down during cellular respiration
iodine
This solution tests for starch
lactase
Individuals with lactose intolerance do not produce this digestive enzyme.
monosaccharide
Benedict's solution is used to test for what carbohydrate?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is fructose?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is galactose?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is glucose?
monosaccharides
these are the monomers of carbohydrates
orange
The color of a positive benedicts test (test for monosacharides) is ___________.
polysaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is cellulose?
polysaccharides
these are made from 3 or more monosaccharides linked together
starch
a polysaccharide that is a storage molecule for plants
starch
Iodine is used to test for what carbohydrate?
sucrose
this disaccharide is also known as table sugar
sucrose
this disaccharide is made of fructose and glucose
benedicts
This solution tests for monosaccharides
black
The color of a positive iodine test (test for starch) is __________.
carbohydrates
These macromolecules are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (always in a 1:2:1 ratio)
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Carbohydrates are made up of the elements .... (put them in alphabetical order with commas in-between)
cellulose
a polysaccharide that gives plants their strength; it is also dietary fiber
cellulose
The complex carbohydrate __________ also called fiber helps to keep water and food moving through your digestive and excretory systems
cellulose
This complex carbohydrate/polysaccharide is not able to be broken down by your digestive system
disaccharide
a double sugar
disaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is lactose?
disaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is sucrose?
fructose
a monosaccharide found in fruit; it is the sweetest sugar
fructose, glucose
Sucrose is made up of what two sugars (put them in alphabetical order with a comma between them)
galactose, glucose
Lactose is made up of what two sugars (put them in alphabetical order with a comma between them)
glucose
a monosaccharide that is made during photosynthesis and broken down during cellular respiration
iodine
This solution tests for starch
lactase
Individuals with lactose intolerance do not produce this digestive enzyme.
monosaccharide
Benedict's solution is used to test for what carbohydrate?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is fructose?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is galactose?
monosaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is glucose?
monosaccharides
these are the monomers of carbohydrates
polysaccharide
What type of carbohydrate is cellulose?
polysaccharides
these are made from 3 or more monosaccharides linked together
starch
a polysaccharide that is a storage molecule for plants
sucrose
this disaccharide is also known as table sugar
sucrose
this disaccharide is made of fructose and glucose
activation energy
The energy needed to start a chemical reaction
amino acid
monomer for proteins
carbohydrate
main source of energy for all living things
catalyst
A substance that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the amount of activation energy required
chemical reaction
a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
enzyme
proteins that act as a cell's biological catalysts
lipid
macromolecules used for energy storage, cell membranes, and waterproofing
macromolecule
large molecule formed by the joining together of smaller molecules
monomer
small units of larger molecules
monosaccharide
single sugar monomers
nucleic acid
macromolecules that store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information
nucleotide
monomer for nucleic acids
polymer
large molecule formed by the joining of multiple monomers
polysaccharide
large sugar polymers
product
the elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction
protein
macromolecule that provides structure and regular processes for the cells
reactant
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
substrate
The reactants of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
disaccharide
lactose
disaccharide
sucrose
enzyme
amylase
enzyme
lactase
enzyme
pepsin
lipid
cholesterol
monosaccharide
fructose
monosaccharide
glucose
nucleic acid
DNA
nucleic acid
RNA
nucleotide
Adenine ("A") + Deoxyribose + phosphate
nucleotide
Cytosine ("C") + Deoxyribose + phosphate
nucleotide
Guanine ("G") + Deoxyribose + phosphate
nucleotide
Thymine ("T") + Deoxyribose + phosphate
polysaccharide
cellulose
polysaccharide
starch
protein
hemoglobin
protein
keratin
saturated fat
butter
unsaturated fat
olive oil
carbon, hydrogen
Lipids are made of these elements... (in alphabetical order separated by commas)
cell membrane
Lipids make up this part of a cell.
energy
One of the functions of lipids is to store ________________.
hydrophilic
water loving
hydrophobic
water hating
lipids
macromolecules made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms.
messengers
some lipids serve as chemical ___________________.
phospholipids
these lipids are found in cell membranes
saturated
_____________ fats are the least healthy type of fats.
saturated
an example of this type of fat would be butter or crisco
saturated
fats that are made of chains of carbon with all single bonds (have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms) are said to be _______________.
saturated
fats that are solid at room temperature are said to be _______________.
steroids
these are the types of lipids that serve as chemical messengers
unsaturated
____________ fats are the healthiest to consume. They can help decrease cholesterol.
unsaturated
an example of this type of fat would be olive oil
unsaturated
fats that are liquid at room temperature are said to be ______________.
unsaturated
fats that are made of chains of carbon with a double bond (have space for more hydrogen) are said to be ________________.
waxes
these are the lipids that form protective barriers for plants and animals