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Amino acids

The building blocks, or monomers of proteins, 20 different types exist, contain a middle carbon, an NH2 group, a COOH group, and an spot where they differ from other amino acids, the "R" group


Indicator used to test for simple sugars and most disaccharides (not sucrose), changes from blue to orange in the presence of sugars, when heated


Indicator used to test for proteins, changes from blue to purple in the presence of proteins

Body parts made of carbohydrates

Cellulose - plant cell walls


animal exoskeletons (think lobster)

Body parts made of lipids

Fat, cell membranes

Body parts made of proteins

Hair, nails, muscle, cartilage - just about all of you


Sugar-based molecules whose main role in animals is to supply energy. Some carbohydrates (cellulose and chitin) provide structure


Structural polysaccharide in plants, straight chains of hundreds of sugars, stiff and rigid, forms the cell walls of plants, also called fiber, if we eat it, we cannot break it apart for energy


Animal polysaccharide for structure, straight chain of hundreds of sugars, stiff and rigid, forms the exoskeletons of arthropods (insects, crabs, lobsters) and the cell walls of fungi

Covalent bonds

Strong bonds that link sugars together to form disaccharides and polysaccharides, that link amino acids together to form proteins, and that link fatty acids and glycerol together to form lipids

Defense Proteins

Proteins that fight disease, invaders, and predators, such as antibodies and venoms

Dehydration synthesis or condensation

To synthesize means to build, this reaction links smaller pieces into larger molecules, it connects sugars to form polysaccharides (energy storage or structure), connects amino acid to form proteins (for structure, transport, defense, or enzymes), and connects fatty acids with glycerol to form fats and oils (store energy)


An uncoiled, or unraveled protein, the protein has lost its shape due to high temperatures or strong chemicals, its weak bonds have broken and the protein cannot perform its job, since it no longer "fits" with other molecules


proteins that speed up the reactions in cells

Fatty acids

Three of these are linked together to form fats and oils, long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms that do not like water, may be straight or bent, energy-rich bonds, combine with glycerol to form fats and oils

Foods that contain carbohydrate

fruits, vegetables, rice, bread, pasta, cereals, whole grain is always better

Foods that contain lipids

ice cream, nuts, vegetable oils, meat

Foods that contain protein

meat, fish, dairy products, beans, nuts, chicken, pork


Simple sugar, very sweet, found in fruits


The simple sugar that fuels all cells, sweet, C6H12O6, broken apart for immediate energy


Animal polysaccharide, how animals store their extra sugars for later use, a branched polysaccharide, found in the liver and in muscle, broken apart when you need sugars for fuel

Hydrogen bonds

Weak bonds that give proteins their three-dimensional shape, easily broken, these bonds form between "R" groups of amino acids in the chain, causing the chain to twist and bend


The reaction that breaks a big molecule into its smaller building blocks, turns proteins into amino acids, turns polysaccharides into sugars (releases energy), and turns fats into fatty acids (releases energy), lysis means to cut and hydro means requires water, so hydrolysis cuts a large molecule into pieces, your cells use these pieces


Indicator used to test for starch, changes from yellow to blue/black when starch is present

Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges

All of the weak bonds between the "R" groups of amino acids in a protein that give the protein its three-dimensional shape, these attractions, along with uncharged amino acids desire to avoid water, cause a protein to automatically fold into a complex shape


Double sugar, found in milk, sweet, how mammals transport sugars to their babies


Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids, these molecules do not dissolve in water, function in long-term energy storage, cushioning, insulation, water-proofing, and communication, 9 Calories per gram


Very large molecules, based on the element carbon, include carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, the building blocks of life

Membrane lipids

Lipids with two tails that surround all cells

Motion proteins

Proteins involved in movement, such as actin and myosin in your muscles


Hundreds of sugars linked together to store energy or to provide structure, includes starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin

Primary structure

The order of amino acids in a protein, the amino acids laid out in a straight chain, before the chain starts to fold and twist, order of amino acids in a protein is determined by an organism's DNA

Protein Structure

May be long, thin strands or globular, essential for a protein to do its job, four levels exist, held together by weak bonds


Chains of amino acids that fold into complex three-dimensional shapes

Quaternary structure (4th)

Two or more chains of amino acids that link together, a big, complex protein

R group

The part of an amino acid that varies, may be big or small, charged or not charged

Saturated fats

Solids at room temperature, contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, their tails are straight, the unhealthy fats, often from animals

Secondary structure

Repeated coiling or folding of regions of a protein due to attractions between its amino acids, look for coils and sheets

Simple sugars

The smallest sugars, the building blocks of all carbohydrates, usually shaped like a hexagon, taste sweet, also called monosaccharides, includes glucose and fructose


Plant polysaccharide, how plants store their extra sugars, animals eat starch and break it apart for energy, a branched polysaccharide, not sweet

Strong bonds

Bonds that link building blocks together, such as those between sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids

Structural proteins

Proteins that give organisms their shape, such as collage which forms cartilage and keratin which forms hair and nails


Table sugar, a double sugar, sweet, how plants transport sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant body

Tertiary structure (3rd)

A chain of amino acids that folds and twists upon itself, has a globular shape, water-loving amino acids are on the outside and water-hating amino acids are on the inside

Transport proteins

Proteins that move materials within your body and within your cells, such as hemoglobin

Unsaturated fats

Liquids at room temperature, oils, contain fewer hydrogen atoms, their tails are bent, the healthy fats from plants


solutions that have a low pH (less than 7) are____________.


solutions that have a high pH (greater than 7) are ______________.

carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins

List the four organic macromolecules talked about in class (in alphabetical order with commas in between)


A property of water that makes water molecules like to stick to each other.


process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in the external environment (like a thermostat)


A weak bond that attracts water molecules to each other is called a ___________ bond.


molecules that DO mix with water are _______________.


molecules that do NOT mix with water are ____________.


A giant molecule in living cells, composed of thousands of smaller molecules is a ________________.


A structure that results when two or more atoms are joined together by sharing electrons


A building blocks of a polymer


Molecules that contain carbon are known as _________ molecules.


A large compound formed from many monomers


This molecule is important to maintaining homeostasis in our bodies, it is needed for key reactions, it makes up the majority of our body, and it transports materials throughout the body


this molecule makes up the majority of your body

carbohydrate examples

sugars, starches, glycogen

carbohydrate subunit



A polysaccharide that provides structural suppost for plants.


complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods


a sugar formed from two monosaccharides


protein that speed up chemical reaction

function of carbohydrates

energy source, stucture

function of lipids

long term energy storage, reserved energy, cell membrane

function of nucleic acids

code for proteins and genetic material

function of proteins

3rd source of energy, helps builds and repairs muscle tissue, makes hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and pigments


a polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals

lipid examples

fats, oils, and waxes

lipid subunit

glycerol with fatty acid


made in living systems from smaller building blocks covalently bonded; four classes: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids


single sugar molecule

nucleic acid examples


nucleic acid subunit



type of macromolecule that makes up the cell membrane


any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules

protein examples

enzymes, hemoglobin, keratin

protein subunit

amino acids held together by peptide bonds

saturated fats

"bad" fats - artery clogging


a polysaccharide that stores glucose in plants


glucose + fructose

unsaturated fats

"good" fats

what names of enzymes end with


what names of sugars end with


3 Jobs of Protein

1. Build cells
2. Act as hormones and enzymes
3. Do most of the cell work

3 things DNA and RNA have in common

Both are made of phosphates, sugars, and bases

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP--the cell's energy molecule

Alcohols end in



2nd most common ingredient in cells


Starts and/or speeds up a process

Chemical Bond

Where the energy is stored and releases energy when broken

Dehydration Synthesis

Removing a water molecule from 2 monosaccharides causing them to bond into a disaccharide; a type of reaction in which 2 molecules are bonded together by the removal of a water molecule

Double helix

Shape of DNA, 2 strands


How animals store energy


Source of energy, found in fat molecules


Adding water to a disaccharide will dissolve the bond and create 2 monosaccharides; the process by which molecules are broken apart by the addition of a water molecule


molecules with the same formula but with different structures (like sucrose and fructose)

mono, di, tri, and poly

one, two, three, and many

Nucleic acid

store hereditary info for making all of a body's proteins


a large molecule made from smaller monomers; also called macromolecule


long chains of proteins


Polymer made of amino acid monomers



Saturated Fat

single-bonded and solid at room temperature like butter and margarine


Determines the molecules function

Single helix

Shape of RNA, 1 strand


How plants store energy

Sugars end in


Universal Solvent

water--dissolves bonds in molecules

Unsaturated Fat

double-bonded and liquid at room temperature like olive oil and vegetable oil

Lugol's solution (IKI)

indicator used to detect starch

Benedict's solution

indicator used to detect sugars

Biuret's solution

indicator used to detect proteins

Grease spot test

used to detect fats and oils

quantitative analysis

test that determines the amount of a substance

qualitative analysis

test that determines the presence or absence of a substance


compound lacking carbon


compound containing carbon, with 3 notable exceptions


sugars and starches


made of amino acids held together by peptide bonds

saturated fats

solid at room temperature due to single bonds between carbons

unsaturated fats

oils; liquids at room temperature due to double bonds between some carbons.


made up of many glucoses; used for short-term energy storage


hydrophobic organic compounds inculding fats, oils, waxes and steroids

negative control

used for comparing with your sample test; indicates the sample lacks the substance for which one is testing

positive control

used for comparing with your sample test; indicates the sample has the substance for which one is testing

colorimetric test

indicates the presence of a substance by exhibiting a color change


There are __________ (number) amino acids that vary in shape, size, and chemical properties

active site

the region where an enzyme binds to its substrate

amino acids

The monomers of proteins are _________ _________.


this is a protein used to digest starch.

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

The elements found in proteins are... (alphabetical order separated by comas)


any substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used or changed in the reaction is a ________.


special proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells


these special proteins are involved in all life processes including digestion, energy storage, and release


Our body makes 12 of the 20 required amino acids, however the other 8 are called ______________ amino acids because they must be obtained from the foods that we eat.


this is a protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen


This is a protein abundant in our skin, hair, and nails.


this is a protein used to digest the sugar found in milk.


An enzyme is what type of organic compound?


complex polymers made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen


Polymers of molecules called amino acids


the substance an enzyme acts on


This solution tests for monosaccharides

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