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Robert Hooke

First to see what he thought to be "cells".

Why did he call them cells?

The first thing he looked at was a thin slice of cork. He saw neat rows of little boxes and they looked like cells in a monastery so he named what he was looking at "cells".

Robert Brown

Discovered the NUCLEUS

What was the beginning of the cell theory?

Matthias SchLeiden discovered all pLants are composed of cells
Theodore SchwAnn discovered all Animals are composed of cells.
thus beginning the Cell Theory

JE Purkinje

used the word PROTOPLASM to name all the materials within the cell

What are the 3 basic principles of the Cell Theory?

1. Cells are the units that make up all living things
2. Cells are the units that carry on all functions of all living things.
3. Cells have to come from preexisting cells.

Does the size of the organism indicate the size of the cells?

No, the size determines the number of the cells. Elephant and Mice cells same size but elephants have more cells.

Is all of an organism made of cells?

No. The parts of the organism not made of cells are composed of materials manufactured by cells. For example Chitin covers outside of insects body. It is not a cell but a carbohydrate made by the cell.

Are cells responsible for the functions of all living things?

Yes, Cells perform the processes of life.

What are the 4 processes of life cells perform?

Internal Functions
Releasing Materials
Continuing Existence

What are the specific functions cells preform for Nutrition?

Absorption and Digestion

What are the specific functions cells perform for Internal Functions?


What are the specific functions cells perform for Releasing Materials?


What are the specific functions cells perform for Continuing Existence?


Do all cells perform all of the functions?

No, cells are specialized in multicellluar organisms

What is it called when some cells perform one function and another cell performs a different function?

Cellular division of labor

True or False. In order to be alive, collectively all the cells must accomplish all the functions.

True. Each cell must be performing its specialized function but all functions must be working. Each cell must do its job in its specialized area.

In cells biosynthesis of materials results in what?

growth and maintenance of the cell

What three things happen when cells reach a certain size?

1. slowdown synthesis of materials
2. secrete certain synthesized materials
3. divide

After a certain amount of growth what must occur?

Cell division, DNA can only control so much so cell division will occur after a limited amount of growth.

What are the results of cellular division

1. new organisms if unicellular
2. more cells in the same organism
3. sex cells - egg or sperm

What is a one cell organism


What is a multicellular organism?

a organism that consists of many cells

What is a colonial organism?

a collection of similar cells living together. Each cell could alone carry on the processes of a cell in the colonial organism. (except reproduction cells)

Most multicelluar organisms are made up of what?


What are tissues?

Similar cells that are grouped together and perform similar functions.

Can tissues exist by themselves?

No, they depend on other tissues to supply them. ex muscle tissue depends on blood tissues to bring glucose etc.

Besides tissues what else do multicellular organisms have?

They have organs

What are organs?

Organs are tissues grouped together to perfrom a specific function for the organism.

Organs are grouped into what?

Systems eg nervous system, digestive system

Organization of Multicelluar organisms

cells - tissues - organs - sytems

What are systems?

groups of organs that work together to accomplish one life functions. digestive system - stomach - intestine - colon all together to accomplish Nutrition.

What governs the maximum size a cell can attain?

1 - DNA governs the size
2 - The ratio btw the surface area of the cell and its volume. At a certain size the cell will need more nutients that can pass through the membrane.

How do cells hold together?

Cell junctions which are chemical interactions between the proteins in cell membranes of the adjacent cells.

What are the three major categories of cell junctions?

Tight, anchoring, and gap junctions


All living substances within a cell.


transport of dissolved substances into cells to serve as energy or building blocks


enzymatic breakdown of substances to obtain energy or building blocks


integration of organic compounds from smaller units obtained from digestion and absorption. results in cell growth, secretion, or replacing worn out parts


breakdown of food (usually glucose) with the release of energy


movement of the cell itself (locomotion) or movement of substances and structures inside the cell (internal movement)


ability to respond to external factors that affect the operations of the cell.


removal of SOLUABLE waste from the cell


elimination of NONSOLUABLE waste from the cell


synthesis and release of substances from the cell


ability to maintain a steady state in the cell


formation of new cells.

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