54 terms

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Ethology
Study of how animals behave
Sign stimulus
External sensory stimulus
Pheromone
Odors emit chemical substance; used to communicate
Associative learning
Ability to associate one feature of environment with another
Sociobiology
Study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory
Behavioral ecology
Study of animal behavior.
Example: How it is controlled,, develops, evolves, and contributes to survival and reproduce successfully
Kinesis
Change in activity or turning route in response to stimulus
Endogenesis
Originating or produced within an organism, tissue, or cell
Hormone
Circulating chemical signals formed in specialized cells to change their functioning
Promiscuous
Relationship where mating occurs with no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships
Polygyny
Mating system of one male and multiple females
Habituation
Learning to become unresponsize after multiple stimuli
Inclusive fitness
Passing on genes to produce more offspring; relatives help raise offspring
Circadian rhythm
Cycles of 24 hour intervale that serve as a molecular clock
Reciprocal altruism
Animals helping others that are not relatives; exchange of aid
Play
To act or to behave
Courtship
Specialized behavior in animals that initiates mating
Stereotyped behavior
repetition of same posture, movement, ect.
Fixed action pattern
stereotyped pattern of behavior that is characteristic of that species; typically doesn't change
Learned behavior
How an animal reacts to stimulus
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Predator develops knowledge of prey type
Trail and error
Modifying behavior based on previous results
Dominance hierarchy
Organization of individuals in a group that occurs when competition for resources lead to aggression
Social behavior
Interactions among individuals
Matureation
Achievement of full development or growth
Latent behavior
Present but not visible behavior
Curiosity
Carefulness, desire to learn or know about anything
territoriality
territorial; defending the territory- includes aggression, scent marking, or singing
innate behavior
behavior that is fixed under strong genetic control; exhibited in almost all individuals in a population despite environmental differences
operant conditioning
associate own behaviors with reward or punishment; tend to repeat good behaviors if rewarded
reflex
automatic reaction to stimulus mediated by the spinal cord or lower brain
imprinting
behavior that includes learning and innate components; generally irreversible; limited time that it can become learned (sensitive period)
learning
behavioral change resulting from experience
kin selection
help a blood relative survive, although it may endanger individuals own life; helps ensure passing of genes
classical conditioning
type of associative learning; association of a normally irrelevant stimulus with a specific behavior
cognition
the ability of a nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information obtained by the senses
taxis
movement toward or away from a stimulus
agonistic behavior
an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource (i.e. foods or mate)
altruism
behavior that reduces an individuals fitness, while increasing the fitness of another
condition reflex
a learned way to react to a stimulus
monogamous
a relationship where one male is with one female
polygamous
a type of relationship where an individual mates with several others of the same species
polyandry
mating system with one female and many males
parental investment
parental expenditure that benefits an offspring at a cost to the parents fitness
coefficient of relatedness
the probability of a particular gene present in one individual will also be inherited from a common parent in a second individual
optimal forging
food obtaining behavior that includes not only eating by also mechanism and animal uses to recognize, search for, and/or capture food items
Lek
gathering of males for the purpose of competitive mating display
cognitive ecology
examines the connection between an animals nervous system and its behavior
ritual
a set of actions performed mainly for their symbolic value
migration
the periodic passage of groups of animals from one region to another for feeding or breeding
insight learning
requires thought before behavior is expressed
annual rhythm
a time when an organism knows when to get food, mate, ect
allomone
any chemical substance production and release that affect other species
aggression
a behavior that causes an organism to act more predatorily towards other species