48 terms

History Chapter 3

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Leif Ericson
Viking sailor that reached the Northern tip of N. America in 1001
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain that agreed to finance the voyage of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
explorer that planned to reach the East Indies by sailing West ended up off the coast of N. america in the Caribbean
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed across the Pacific Ocean
Columbian Exchange
global exchange of goods and ideas between the peoples of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. started with the voyages of columbus
colony
group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the land they came from
turning point
moment in history that marks a decisive change
circumnavigate
sail completely around the world
two effects of Christopher Columbus's voyage
founded the first Spanish colony in the Americas. Created harsh conditions for the native americans and enslaved them
What route did Magellans expedition take
left spain and sailed around the southern tip of South America
Hernando Cortes
In 1519 set sail for Mexico in Search for gold
Moctezuma
Aztec Emperor who ruled over most of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro
conquered the Incan empire. killed Atahualpa
pueblo
towns. centers for farming and trade
presidio
forts where soldiers lived
mission
religious settlements run by catholic priests
peninsulare
spanish social class held the highest jobs
creole
born in the Americas to Spanish parents
mestizo
mixed spanish and indian background
encomienda
land grants to settlers that gave them the right to demand labor or taxes from native Americans
plantation
large estate farmed by many workers
why were the spanish able to conquer the Americas
superior military equipment. native americans did not fight as hard as they might have. sickness...
What was life like for native Americans under Spanish rule
Awful. they were kept in poverty and forced to work in mines
Why did Spain bring Africans to the Americas
because there was a shortage of native americans due to illness and death...
what products came from the Americas to Europe, Africa, and Asia (columbian Exchange chart)
maize potatoes, beans, squash, etc
what products came from Europe, Africa and Asia to the Americas
wheat, sugar, banana, rice, domestic animals (coes, pigs)
Name the Four Social classes in new Spain with short description
1. peninsulares_highest class
2. creoles- spanish people born in the Americas
3. mestizos- mix between spanish and indians
4. Indians- lowest class treated like slaves
What motivates spanish conquistadors to sail the Americas
personal wealth and glory
wealth and glory for spain
spread Christianity to indigenous population
protestant reformation
movement to reform catholic church in 1500s led to the creation of many different christian churches
northwest passage
waterway through or around North America
coureur de bois
french colonists who lived and worked in the woods
missionary
a person who goes to another land to win converts for religion
alliance
an agreement between nations to aid an protect one another
why did europeans seek a northern route to asia
the route around South America was long and difficult they wanted to find a shorter route
what religious differences divided Europe
some believed the church had become too worldly and that the pope had too much power and some disagreed with the catholic teachings
how did these differences affect the race for American colonies
brought the conflicts to Americas and they began fighting each other for control of new land
Powhatan
powerful Indian chief who agreed to supply corn to the English
house of burgesses
made laws for the colony
charter
legal document that giving certain rights to a person or a company
burgess
representatives to the government
representative government
voters elect representatives who make laws for them
Pilgrims
founders of Plymouth looking for religious freedom. did not call themselves pilgrims
Mayflower compact
framework for governing the pilgrim colony in Plymouth
Squanto
English speaking Indian who had been captured before and lived in England helped the Pilgrims the most by bringing them seeds.
established church
chosen religion of a state
persecution
punishment or mistreatment of a person because of their beliefs
precedent
example for other to follow in the future
Why did many religious groups in Europe face persecution
because they did not follow the beliefs of the established Church