a force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into an ion
Binary ionic compound
an ionic compound in which one element present is a metal and the other element present is a nonmetal
the collection of atoms corresponding to an ionic compound's formula such that the molar mass of the compound is the same as the mass of 1 mol of formula units
the number of electrons that must be added to or removed from an atom in a combined state to convert the atom into the elemental form
Polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom
Nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
Binary molecular compound
These are composed of two non metallic elements, and prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms of each element.
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other.
is dependant on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a complound and the asymmetry of the compound's structure
Unshared pair or lone pair of electrons
pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
Double covalent bond
A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms.
Elements surrounded by more than 8 electrons when they combine with the highly electronegative elements
a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
Covalent network bonding
atoms that are covalently bonded together throughout the smaple example diamonds, quartz, graphite
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule