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Chemical bond

the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together

Bond energy

the energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound

Ionic bonding

a force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into an ion


an ion that has a positive charge


an ion that has a negative charge

Ionic compound

a compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction

Monoatomic ions

ions formed from a single atom

Binary ionic compound

an ionic compound in which one element present is a metal and the other element present is a nonmetal

Formula unit

the collection of atoms corresponding to an ionic compound's formula such that the molar mass of the compound is the same as the mass of 1 mol of formula units

Oxidation numbers

the number of electrons that must be added to or removed from an atom in a combined state to convert the atom into the elemental form

Polyatomic ions

ions that are made of more than one atom

Covalent bonding

chemical bonding that results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms

Polar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom

Diatomic molecules

molecules made up of two atoms of the same element

Nonpolar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge


a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions

Electronegativity difference

The difference in electronegativity between two elements in a bond.


the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance

Molecular compound

a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

Chemical formula

a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance

Binary molecular compound

These are composed of two non metallic elements, and prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms of each element.

Binary acid

an acid that does not contain oxygen, such as hydrofluoric acid


an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal


compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them

Octet rule

States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

Lewis structure

a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.

VSEPR theory

a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other.

Molecular polarity

is dependant on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a complound and the asymmetry of the compound's structure

Unshared pair or lone pair of electrons

pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom

Single covalent bond

a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons

Double covalent bond

A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms.

Triple covalent bond

a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons

Expanded valence

Elements surrounded by more than 8 electrons when they combine with the highly electronegative elements

Resonance structure

a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion

Covalent network bonding

atoms that are covalently bonded together throughout the smaple example diamonds, quartz, graphite

Metallic bonding

a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them

Dipole-dipole forces

attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

Hydrogen bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

London dispersion forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

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