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Chapter 12 bio test
Terms in this set (51)
What stores information in a cell
What happens when a piece of DNA is missing?
Genetic information is lost
In what way is DNA like a book?
DNA has stored information, that can be copied and passed on
In which cells is the accurate transmission of information most important
Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA?
Because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of
Thymine molecules in DNA is about equal to the percentage of adenine molecules
What structural problem prevents adenine from pairing with adenine?
They lack phosphate groups
DNA makes a good molecule for storing information because
It's bases can be joined together in any order, like the letters of the alphabet can be strung to form different words
Which of the following best describes Rosalind Franklin's contribution to our understanding of the structure of DNA?
She purified large amounts of DNA, stretched the fibers so the strands were parallel, and used an x-Ray beam to produce an image of the molecule
Rosalind Franklin contributed to the understanding of DNA by
Producing images of DNA molecules using X-Rays
Which of the following statements correctly describes chargaffs contribution to the study of DNA?
Chargaff showed that adenine and thymine were found in equal percentages in DNA, but he did not know this was because of base pairing
Which scientist(s) figured out that the shape of a DNA is a double helix?
Watson and crick
Which scientist made x-Ray diffraction photos of DNA?
What is the chronological order of the important discoveries in the structure of DNA?
Chargaffs ratios of nucleotides~ Franklin makes an X-Ray diffraction photo of DNA~Watson and crick identify the double helix
Which of the following forms a base pair with thymine?
What did Rosalind Franklin contribute to the effort to identify the structure of DNA?
X-Ray diffraction photos of the DNA molecule
Watson and crick discovered the two strands of DNA
Run in opposite directions
DNA replication results in two DNA molecules,
Each with one new strand and one original strand
What enzyme works to add DNA to ends of chromosomes in rapidly dividing cells such as those found in an embryo, to prevent genes from being lost during replication?
Which of the following include all the others?
Adds base pairs to the strands
In eukaryotes, DNA
Is located in the nucleus
Which would be greater in a eukaryote than in a prokaryote?
The number of replication forks on a strand of DNA, and the total amount of DNA in a cell
What binds to the prokaryotic chromosome to start DNA replication?
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, how many copies of the chromosome are left after replication?
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, DNA replication Happens
Before cell division
When scientists say that DNA TRANSMITS information, they mean that it passes information from one generation to the next
DNA is a nucleic acid made up of NUCLEOSOMES joined into long strand or chains by covalent bonds
The nucleotides within a DNA strand may have different NITROGEN BASES, but all have identical sugar molecules
Chargaff contributed to the understanding of DNA by figuring out the percentages of ADENINE AND THYMINE were almost equal in any sample of DNA
Watson and crick used the image of DNA taken by FRANKLIN in their work to figure out the structure of DNA
Watson and crick discovered that COVALENT bonds hold base pairs together at the center of a strand of DNA
The replication of a DNA molecule results in FOUR copies of the same gene
DNA is tightly wrapped around NUCLEOSOMES
In eukaryotes, DNA replication proceeds in ONE DIRECTION along the DNA molecule
False; opposite directions
Eukaryotic DNA molecules need to be carefully copied and sorted, especially in the formation of _____ cells during meiosis
The Watson and crick model of DNA is a(an) ______ double helix, in which two strands are wound around each other
____ are weak bonds that hold the two strands of DNA together, but also allow the DNA to separate and replicate
If covalent bonds held the two strands of nucleotides together, the two strands could not easily separate and ______
Chromatin contains proteins called _____
DNA replication is carried out by a series of _____
The tips the chromosomes are known as _____
A prokaryotic cell replicates it _______ before it splits to form new cells, so that each de cell can have genetic material
Eukaryotic DNA has more replication forks than prokaryotic DNA, because it has more starting places, or _____
Origins of replication
What does DNA do with information
It stores, copy's, and transmits it
When is DNAs role in transmitting information most important and why
During the formation of sex cells in meiosis because the loss of any DNA might mean a loss of genetic information from one generation to the next
What are the roles of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds in the structure of DNA
Covalent bonds,make sure the nucleotide doesn't break and hydrogen bonds hold together the double helix
How did x-Ray technology enable scientists to better understand the structure of DNA
It gave a picture of DNA that Watson and crick used to make their model
During DNA replication, what two processes must occur before the two strand of a DNA molecule can separate
Unwind and unzip
DNA polymerase is represented by the spheres
It unzips DNA molecules and matches nitrogen bases by base pairing
Identify one difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication
The number of forks
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