Colonization of the body is inhibited by which of the following? Check all that apply.

A) The Movement of mucus by cilia (mucociliary escalator).
B) Perialstis
C) The flushing action of the urinary tract.
D) The shedding of skin cells (desquamation).
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Select the correct statement about the nucleus.

A) It cannot transport molecules to the cytoplasm due to the double membrane barrier.
B) It is an irregularly shaped region within the prokaryotic cell that contains all or most of the genetic material.
C) It is a double membrane sac containing DNA and is found in eukaryotes.
D) It is a smaller structure contained within the eukaryotic nucleolus.
E) It is a single phospholipid membrane sac containing prokaryotic DNA.
Lipid A is a component of which of the following? A) Bacterial glycocalyces. B) Cytoplasmic membranes. C) Mycolic acid. D) The inner membrane of G+ bacteria. E) The outer membrane of G- bacteria.EIdentify the true statement(s). Check all that apply. A) In microbiology, growth usually refers to an increase in size of the bacteria. B) Drugs that target prokaryotic protein synthesis would have no effect on eukaryotic cell growth. C) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a glycocalyx. D) Organisms that are large, complex, single-celled, lacking a rigid cellulose cell wall, and frequently classified by means of locomotion are algae.CWhich of the following bacteria lack a periplasmic space? A) Vibrio cholerae B) Neisseria gonorrhoeae C) Staphylococcus aureus D) Escherichia coli E) Borrelia burgdorferiCWhich of the following is found in RNA but not DNA? A) Adenine B) Deoxyribose C) Cytosine D) Uracil E) GuanineDSelect the G+ acid-fast rod (AFB) that is a primary human pathogen. A) Clostridium tetani B) Mycobacterium tuberculosis C) Streptococcus mutans D) Mycoplasma pneumoniae E) Bacillus anthracis F) Streptobacillus moniliformisBPenicillin would be most effective against which of the following? Check all that apply. A) Non-growing bacteria B) Vegetative bacterial cells C) G+ bacteria D) G- bacteriaB, CBacterial endotoxin is characterized by which of the following? A) It determines bacterial shape. B) It consists of LTA. C) It may have different effects depending on the specific bacterial source. D) It is toxic due to the effects of the polysaccharide side chains. E) It consists of LPS.EWhich of the following are indifferent to the presence of oxygen and do not use it? A) Microaerophiles B) Facultative anaerobes C) Obligate anaerobes D) Aerotolerant anaerobes E) Obligate aerobesDWhich of the following structures do bacteria use for attachment to surfaces or to each other? Check all that apply. A) LPS B) Flagella C) Pili D) Fimbriae E) CapsuleC, D, EWhich of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria? A) Exotoxin B) Lipoteichoic acid C) Mucopolysaccharide D) N-acetylglucosamine E) Peptidoglycan F) Mycolic acidFIdentify the etiologic agent of dental caries. A) Staphylococcus aureus B) Lactobacillus acidophilus C) Streptococcus mutans D) Streptococcus pyogenes E) Staphylococcus epidermidisCChoose the incorrect statement(s) about lysozyme. Check all that apply. A) It prevents cross-linking of adjacent glycan chains. B) It breaks the glycosidic bond that links the NAG and NAM molecules of peptidoglycan. C) It is generally more effective against G- organisms. D) It is found in tears and saliva.A, CWhich of the following may be a component of bacterial cell walls? A) Lipoteichoic acids B) Tubulin C) Both lipoteichoic & mycolic acids D) Mycolic acid E) CarrageenanCIdentify the inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents. Check all that apply. A) Fomites B) Virulence factors C) Pathogens D) Arthropods E) CarriersAWhich one of the following forms of immunity to viruses would be LEAST likely to be lifelong? A) Cell-mediated immunity B) Active immunity C) Humoral immunity D) Passive immunity E) Passive-active immunityDWhich of the following is classified as a nonmembranous organelle of eukaryotic cells? A) Peroxisome B) Centriole C) Mitochondrion D) Endoplasmic reticulum E) Golgi bodyBAll of the following are anatomical locations associated with the upper respiratory tract EXCEPT: A) Mastoid cavity B) Middle ear C) Alveoli D) Nasal sinuses E) NasopharynxCWhich stain makes use of malachite green? A) Negative B) Flagellar C) Acid-fast D) Electron microscopy E) Endospore F) GramEEven though Mycoplasma pass through filters that normally trap bacteria, they are known to be bacteria, not viruses. Why? A) They contain both DNA & RNA, and divide by binary fission. B) They contain both DNA & RNA. C) They synthesize peptidoglycan & divide by snapping division. D) They divide by binary fission. E) They synthesize peptidoglycanAWhich of the following complications is MOST likely to occur in a pregnant woman who has asymptomatic bacteriuria? A) Spinal osteomyelitis B) Peritonitis C) Pyelonephritis D) Pneumonia E) Stillbirth of the fetusCMany viruses are able to be reactivated many years after initial entrance into a host. An example of this is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and shingles. This is an example of a(n): A) Latent infection B) Slow infection C) Persistent infection D) Chronic infection E) Acute infectionAPeople who wash their hands frequently during cold season typically have fewer colds than those who do not. This observation suggests cold viruses can be transmitted by which of the following? A) Fecal-oral B) Both biological & mechanical vectors C) Fomites D) Both direct contact & fomites E) Mechanical vectors F) Biological vectors G) Direct contactDWhy have some microbiologists proposed using ribosomal RNA as the basis for defining bacterial species? A) Ribosomal RNAs are highly conserved genetic sequences present in all prokaryotes. B) The "interbreeding population" criterion does not apply to bacteria. C) Bacteria are not interbreeding populations, and ribosomal RNAs are highly conserved genes present in all prokaryotes. D) Bacteria vary too little in their physical and biochemical traits. E) Ribosomal RNA is the basis for domain assignment.CWhich of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process? A) Incubation, convalescence, prodromal period, illness, decline B) Incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence C) Illness, convalescence, incubation, prodromal period, decline D) Prodromal period, convalescence, incubation, illness, decline E) Convalescence, incubation, prodromal period, illness, declineBAn axenic environment is one A) that is a source of contamination. B) in which microorganisms remain with the person throughout life. C) in which microorganisms remain present only for a short time. D) contaminated by microbial toxins. E) that is free of microbes.ETransovarian transmission is a process in which A) a pathogen infects the ovaries of the host. B) the pathogen is transmitted from an infected male to a healthy female during mating. C) an infected female vector transmits the pathogen to the eggs forming in its ovaries. D) the pathogen is spread from one host to the next by unprotected sexual intercourse. E) a pathogen is transmitted to the host when the host ingests contaminated eggsCBeta-lactamases protect which of the following cell structures from damage by antimicrobial drugs? A) Cell wall B) LPS C) Outer membrane D) Nucleoid E) Ribosomes F) Cytoplasmic membrane G) GlycocalyxAWhich of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE? A) Living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP. B) Reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism. C) Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things. D) Viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things. E) Organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all timesBWhich of the following coliforms is the MOST common cause of community acquired (CA) UTIs? A) Proteus mirabilis B) Escherichia coli C) Klebsiella pneumoniae D) Enterobacter E) Serratia marcescensBInflammation of the pharynx with pus-filled abscesses & swollen tonsils is known as which of the following? A) Diphtheria B) Otitis media C) RSV D) Corona virus respiratory syndrome E) Streptococcal pharyngitis ("strep throat") F) CroupEIdentify the usual etiology of an oral herpes infection. A) Herpes simplex virus type 2. B) Human herpes virus type 6. C) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) D) Herpes simplex virus type 4. E) Herpes simplex virus type 3. F) Herpes simplex virus type 1.FAll of the following participate in adherence EXCEPT: A) Fimbriae B) Slime layers C) Axial filaments D) Pili E) CapsulesCWhich of the following statements is TRUE with regard to oral herpes? A) Lesions become more severe with each recurrence. B) Ninety percent of all cases are caused by human herpesvirus 2 (HV-2). C) Primary infections are usually characterized by severe lesions. D) Lesions can be triggered by emotional stress or physiologic changes. E) There is an effective cure for oral herpes.DA 20 YO WF at 12 weeks' gestation arrived in the clinic for a routine prenatal care visit. She mentioned having no major problems other than morning sickness. A urine sample is obtained. A dipstick test reveals pyuria and the presence of nitrites. A quantitative assay for bacteria in the urine reveals 500,000 CFU/mL in the sample. A Gram stain of the lactose fermenting bacteria contained many GNRs. Which of the following organisms is the MOST common cause of her asymptomatic bacteriuria? A) Proteus mirabilis B) Escherichia coli C) Staphylococcus saprophyticus D) Klebsiella pneumoniae) E) Pseudomonas aeruginosaBIdentify the condition that results when some bacteria are shed in the bloodstream & distributed to distant parts of the body but do not reproduce in the blood. A) Toxemia B) Erythema C) Septicemia D) Systemic E) Uremia F) BacteremiaFA 20 YO WF who works in a pediatric unit begins to suffer from fatigue, sneezing, and a runny nose. She is afebrile, but she soon develops a mild sore throat, headache, and stuffy nose. Her symptoms subside within 3 to 4 days. Which virus is the MOST likely cause of these symptoms? A) Norwalk virus B) HSV-1 C) Rhinovirus D) EBV E) Streptococcus pyogenes F) Parvovirus B19 G) Influenza virusCWhich of the following adheres to & grows on teeth, contributing to dental plaque formation? A) Streptococcus pyogenes B) Enterobacter C) Streptococcus mutans D) Streptococcus agalactiae E) Porphyromonas gingivalis F) Viridans streptococciCWhich of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis? A) Microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus B) Tuberculosis in the human lung C) Bacteria in the human colon D) Tapeworm in the human intestine E) Protozoa in termitesAWhat is the nucleocapsid? A) The complete viral particle B) The sum of the nucleic acid and the capsid C) A protective protein shell surrounding nucleic acid D) A protein molecule that forms the capsid E) A phospholipid bilayer that contains glycoproteinsBThe suffix -emia means in the ______________. A) Blood B) Lymph C) Interstitial tissue D) Central nervous system (CNS) E) Bone marrow F) BodyASelect the FALSE statement regarding protein denaturation. A) Denaturation can occur due to pH changes. B) Denaturation cannot be reversed. C) Denaturation can occur due to high temperature. D) Denaturation may cause the protein to no longer function. E) Denaturation can occur due to certain chemicals.BWhat is a capsomere? A) A protein subunit that self-assembles B) A phospholipid bilayer that contains glycoproteins C) A protective protein shell surrounding nucleic acid D) The complete viral particle E) The sum of the nucleic acid and the capsidAWhich of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic pathogens? A) Growth of Lactobacillus on the surface of teeth B) Presence of Entamoeba in the lumen of the colon C) Treatment of a cancer patient with radiation D) Growth of microbes on the surface of intact skin E) Growth of microorganisms on the excreted cellular wastes and dead cells in the large intestineCThe duration of a rhinovirus infection and an influenza infection is usually only limited to 4-5 days. What type of viral infection does this represent? A) Latent infection B) Acute infection C) Persistent infection D) Chronic infection E) Slow infectionBWhat types of molecules may NOT need transport proteins to be able to cross cytoplasmic membranes? A) Small hydrophilic molecules B) Small hydrophobic molecules C) Nothing crosses CM without transport proteins D) Glucose E) IonsBA person is exposed to rotten wood with fungal growth and develops blastomycosis. No one taking care of him/her becomes ill. Blastomycosis is an example of a __________ disease. A) chronic B) latent C) noncommunicable D) subacute E) contagiousCTreponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is able to bore through tissues by using which of the following? A) Axial filaments B) Integral proteins C) Flagella D) Hooks E) S piliAWhich of these processes is NOT used by viruses to spread within a host? A) Lysis of the host cell B) Movement through the apical surface of epithelial cells to spread to neighboring cells C) Syncytia D) The production of decoy virions to confuse and distract the host defenses E) Transportation by microtubulesEThe normal microbiota of the large intestine consists mainly of which of the following? A) Viruses B) Viroids C) Helminths D) Protozoa E) Bacteria F) No microbial agents G) FungiEWhy does immersion oil improve resolution? A) It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed. B) It allows light to travel at a uniform speed on its way to the lens. C) It increases the numerical aperture. D) It decreases the working distance. E) It increases the angle of refraction of the light.AWhat is the viral envelope? A) The sum of the nucleic acid and the capsid B) A phospholipid bilayer that contains glycoproteins C) A protective protein shell surrounding nucleic acid D) The complete viral particle E) A protein molecule that forms the capsidBOver 470,000 cases of cholera were reported in Haiti in the two years following the 2010 earthquake. Which of the following was the MOST likely mode of transmission? A) Contact B) Mosquitoes C) Contaminated water D) Aerosols E) Contaminated milkCThe condition called parasitism is characterized as a(n) A) relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits and the other is unharmed. B) relationship between two organisms where both members benefit. C) relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other. D) unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes. E) nonsymbiotic relationshipCWhich of the following diseases may be reduced by improved public sanitation measures? A) HIV B) Cholera C) Rabies D) Chickenpox E) MalariaBIf a microbiology lab student left the safranin out of the Gram stain procedure, what would be the result? A) All cells would be purple. B) All cells would be pink. C) G+ cells would be colorless and G- cells would be pink. D) G+ cells would be purple and G- cells would be colorless. E) G+ cells would be pink and G- cells would be purple.DDuring parasitic infections and allergic reactions, the number of circulating ____________ increases significantly. A) Monocytes B) Basophils C) Lymphocytes D) Neutrophils E) EosinophilsEA patient has been diagnosed with gonorrhea. Which of the following would be seen microscopically when examining the patient's sample? A) Staphylococci B) Coccobacilli C) Streptococci D) Tetrads E) Diplococci F) Encapsulated G+ diplococciEMutualism is a relationship A) where it is difficult to prove the benefits or disadvantages one member of the relationship may provide for the other. B) where one member of the relationship benefits without hurting the other. C) where one member of the relationship may kill the other. D) where only one member derives benefit from the other. E) that sometimes provides benefits for both members such that one or both parties cannot live without the other.EA cell's G + C ratio is associated with which of the following classification methods? A) Physical characteristics B) Serological tests C) Biochemical tests D) Analysis of nucleic acids E) Phage typingDWhich of the following statements is TRUE regarding infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae? A) The etiologic agent attaches to ciliated cells in the respiratory tract. B) It is diagnosed by the appearance of typical "fried-egg" colonies on agar. C) It is extremely difficult to treat. D) It causes disease which is usually severe enough to require hospitalization. E) The causative agent is a slow-growing G+ bacillus.AMembers of which of the following genera are the most common sexually transmitted bacteria in the United States? A) Bacteroides B) Chlamydia C) Treponema D) Helicobacter E) RickettsiaBA young woman being treated for serious burns develops severe diarrhea accompanied by intense abdominal pain. She passes several watery, foul-smelling, bloody stools a day. A colonoscopy reveals patches of yellowish lesions in the large intestine. Identify the probable causative agent. A) Giardia intestinalis B) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi C) Clostridioides difficile D) Vibrio cholerae E) CampylobacterCWhich of the following groups of bacteria is named for its resemblance to fungi? A) Clostridium B) Corynebacterium C) Staphylococcus D) Actinomyces E) LactobacillusDThe most appropriate unit of measurement for intact Archaea is which of the following? A) Nanometer (nm) B) Millimeter (mm) C) Centimeter (cm) D) Meter (m) E) Micrometer (μm)EWhich of the following statements concerning conjugation pili is FALSE? A) Pili are longer than fimbriae & flagella. B) Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells. C) A bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili. D) Pili are long, hollow tubules. E) Not all bacteria have pili.AThe condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as which of the following? A) A relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits. B) A relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other. C) Microorganisms that remain with a person throughout life. D) An unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes. E) A relationship between two organisms where both members benefit.DBacteria in the genus Salmonella are frequent causes of serious food contamination. Which of the following methods would provide rapid confirmation that a Salmonellaspecies was a contaminant in food suspected of causing food "poisoning"? A) Phage typing B) Serological tests C) Analysis of nucleic acids D) Biochemical tests E) Physical characteristicsAOrganisms that are resident microbiota are best described as which of the following? A) Microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life. B) Microorganisms that never cause disease. C) Any microorganisms that cause disease. D) Microorganisms that may cause a disease under certain circumstances. E) Organisms that remain in the body for a short timeADiseases that are naturally spread from their usual animal hosts to humans are called ___________________.zoonosisEndospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of which of the following? A) Lipopolysaccharide B) Dipicolinic acid C) Mycolic acid D) Hopanoids E) Ca++ F) Glycoproteins G) CysteineBRegions on the host cell's plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and particular types of fatty acids to which some viruses attach are called which of the following? A) Integral membrane proteins B) Syncytia C) Capsomeres D) Lipid rafts E) Peripheral membrane proteinsDWhich of the following is considered part of the indigenous microbiota of the female reproductive system? A) Candida B) E. coli C) Bacteroides D) Lactobacillus E) both Candida and LactobacillusEWhich of the following is true of both fimbriae and pili? A) They are made only by G+ bacteria. B) Both are needed for bacterial conjugation. C) They are involved with adherence. D) Their retraction aids in motility. E) They are the same length.CA strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to lose the ability to produce fimbriae. It becomes less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen lost? A) The ability to establish a latent infection B) The ability to prevent phagocytes killing it C) The ability to move from one location in the body to another D) The ability to adhere to cells of the body E) The ability to produce an endotoxinDIdentify the MOST common cause of CAP in adults > 55 YO. A) Haemophilus influenzae. B) Chlamydophila pneumoniae. C) COVID-19 D) Klebsiella pneumoniae. E) Streptococcus pneumoniae. F) Mycoplasma pneumoniae.E