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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH American Pageant Chapters 22-23
Terms in this set (41)
(1865-1872) Created to aid newly emancipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, education and legal support. Its achievements were uneven and depended largely on the quality of local
-Vice president of Lincoln
-A southerner who didn't understand the north and a Tennessean who had earned the distrust of the south.
"10 Percent" Reconstruction Plan
(1863) Introduced by Lincoln, it proposed that a state be readmitted to the union once 10 percent of its voters had pledged loyalty to the U.S. and promised to honor emancipation.
Passed by congressional republicans in response to the 10 percent plan, it required that 50 percent of a state's voters pledge allegiance to the union and set stronger safeguards for emancipation.
Laws passed throughout the south to restrict the rights of emancipated blacks, particularly with respect to negotiating labor contracts.
Pacific Railroad Act
(1862) Helped fund the construction of the union pacific transcontinental railroad with the use of land grants and government bonds.
Civil Rights Bill
(1866) Bill passed over Johnson's veto. It aimed to counteract the black codes by conferring citizenship on African Americans and making it a crime to deprive blacks of their rights to sue, testify in court or
(1868) Constitutional amendment that extended civil rights to freedmen and prohibited states from taking away such rights without due process.
Leader of the radical republicans in senate, labored fro black freedom and racial equality.
The most powerful radical republican in the house, affectionate devotion to blacks and their rights.
(1867) Passed by the newly elected republican congress, it divided the south in 5 military districts, disenfranchised former confederates and required that southern states both ratify the fourteenth amendment and write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before readmission to the union.
(1870) Prohibited states from denying citizens the franchise on account of race.
Ex Parte Milligan
(1866) Civil war era case in which the supreme court ruled that military tribunals could not be used to try civilians if the courts were open.
Southern democratic politicians who sought to wrest control from republican regimes in the south after reconstruction.
Woman's Loyal League
Women's organization formed to help bring about an end to the civil war and encourage congress to pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery.
Reconstruction-era African American organization that worked to educate southern blacks about civil life, built black schools and churches. It also campaigned on behalf of republican candidates and recruited local militias to protect blacks from white intimidation.
Derogatory term for pro-union southerners whom southern democrats accused on plundering the resources of the south in collusion with Republican governments after the civil war.
Pejorative used by southern whites to describe northern businessmen and politicians who came to the south after the civil war to work on reconstruction projects or invest in southern infrastructure.
Ku Kulx Klan
An extremist, paramilitary, right-wing secret society. They terrorized freedmen and sympathetic whites throughout the south after the civil war.
(1870-1871) Passed by congress following the wave of KKK violence, the acts banned clan membership, prohibited the use of intimidation to prevent blacks from voting and gave the U.S. military the authority to enforce the acts.
Tenure of Office Act
(1867) Required the president to seek approval from the senate before removing appointees. When Johnson removed his secretary of war in violation of the act, he was impeached by the house but remained
in office when the senate fell one vote short of removing him.
Secretary of ward under Lincoln and Johnson, secretly serving as a spy for the radical republicans. Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when he fired this man.
(1867) Popular term for secretary of state William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia. The derisive term reflected the anti-expansionist sentiments of most Americans after the civil war.
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
Reviving gory memories of the civil war, became a prominent feature of Grant's presidential campaign.
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
Men who concocted a plot to corner the gold market. They heightened the price of gold and caused "black Friday".
A symbol of Gilded Age corruption, "Boss" Tweed and his deputies ran the NYC democratic party in the 1860s and swindled $200 million from the city through bribery, graft and vote-buying.
Crédit Mobilier Scandal
(1872) A construction company was formed by owners of the Union Pacific Railroad for the purpose of receiving government contracts to build the railroad at highly inflated prices and profits. The company bribed congressmen and the vice president in order to allow the ruse to continue.
Political party formed in 1872, urged purification of the Washington administration as well as an end to military reconstruction
Liberal Republican presidential candidate, unsound in his political judgements.
Amnesty Act of 1872
Removed political disabilities from all but some 500 former confederate leaders.
Panic of 1873
A worldwide depression that began in the U.S. when one of the largest banks declared bankruptcy, leading to the collapse of thousands of banks and businesses. The crisis intensified debtors' calls for inflationary measures such as the printing of more paper money and the unlimited coinage of silver.
Resumption Act of 1875
Pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulations and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value.
(1877-1896) A term given to this period by Mark Twain, indicating both the fabulous wealth and the widespread corruption of the era.
-Traced their lineage to Puritanism
-Stressed strict codes of personal morality
-Believed the government should play a role in regulating both the economic and moral affairs of
-Immigrant Lutherans and Roman Catholics
-More likely to adhere to faiths that took a less stern view of human weakness
-Toleration of differences in an imperfect world
-Spurned government efforts to impose a single moral standard on the entire society.
Practice of rewarding political support with special favors, often in the form of public office.
Compromise of 1877
The agreement that finally resolved the 1876 election and officially ended reconstruction. In exchange for Hayes winning the presidency, Hayes agreed to withdraw the last of the federal troops from the former confederate states.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
The last piece of federal civil rights legislation until the 1950s, the law promised blacks equal access to public accommodations and banned racism in jury selection, but the act provided no means of enforcement and was therefore ineffective.
An agricultural system that emerged after the civil war in which black and white farmers rented land and residences from a plantation owner in exchange for
giving him a certain "share" of each year's crop. It was the dominant form of southern agriculture after the civil war and land owners manipulated this system to
keep tenants in perpetual debt and unable to leave.
System of racial segregation in the south from the end of reconstruction until the mid-twentieth century. Based on the concept of "seperate but equal"
facilities for blacks and whites, the jim crow system sought to prevent racial mixing in public. An informal system, it was generally perpetuated by custom, violence and intimidation.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) A supreme court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the fourteenth amendment.
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