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149 terms

Earth Science Final

149 Questions, Mrs.Charles Earth Science Final.
STUDY
PLAY
Theory
A (Blank) ia a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
Meteorology
The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as (Blank).
State the problem, gather information, form a hypothesis, test, form a conclusion.
All of the following are possible steps of the scientific investigation.
Closed
A (Blank) system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as (Blank).
Renewable
A (Blank) resource is one which can be replenished over a relatively short time.
Diamond
What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?
Calcite
Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?
Gold has the highest density
A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weighs 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams repectively. This indicates that (Blank).
Michas
Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?
Hrdness
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as (Blank).
Cleavage
The strong tendency of certain minerals break along smooth, parrallel planes is known as (Blank).
Crystalline, Chemical composition, Physical properties
Which one of the following is not true for minerals? (whats true about them)
Silicates
Which group of minerals are the most abundantin the Earth's crust?
Ore
Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called (Blank).
Become larger
As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form (Blank).
Rhyolite
Which one of the following is an igneous rock?
Magma cools on surface
Igneous rock is formed when (Blank).
Frost Wedging
The most important mechanical weathering process is (Blank).
In a warm humid climate
Chemical weathering would be most effective (Blank).
Mineral content, Climate, and Topography
Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?
Conatin fossils, Give clues to Earth history, and are important economically
Sedimentary rocks...
Fresh water coastal areas
Coal beds originate in (Blank).
Foliated
(Blank) is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.
Marble
Metamorphic rock of limestone.
Slate
Metamorphic rock of shale.
U-Shaped
A (Blank) cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
Cirques and Aretes
(Blank) are erosinal features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.
Kettle
A (Blank) forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and melts, creating a pit.
Deflation
Desert pavement is the result of (Blank).
Channel size, Laminar flow, Gradient
Which factors influence stream velocity?
Water, Evaporation, Infultrating the ground, Moving to creeks.
Which is part of the water cycle?
Head Waters
If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is (Blank).
Meander
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is (Blank).
Depositional and parallel to the stream
A natural levee is (Blank).
An Oxbow Lake
(Blank) is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.
Rapids and Whitewater
(Blank) are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.
Water
The single most important erosional agent is.
The boundary between saturated, under, and unsaturated, over.
The water table is (Blank).
Saluable rocks/limestone
Caves most commonly form in (Blank).
Focus
The source of an earthquake is called the (Blank).
The design of the structture, Intensity of the earthquake, and the nature of the surface.
The ammount of destruction caused by earthqake vibrations is effected by (Blank).
Seismograph
The instrument the records earthquake events is called a (Blank).
Epicenter
The position on earths surface directly above the earthquakes source is called the (Blank).
Surface Wave
Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.
Arrival time of P and S waves
The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the (Blank).
Mesosaurus
(Blank) was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Palezoic.
Alfred Wegner
In the early part of the 20th century, (Blank) argued forcefully for continental drift.
Pangea
The former late Palezoic super continent is known as (Blank).
India to Asia
The (Blank) is an example of a continet to continent collision.
Convection of heat from the mantel to the asthenosphere.
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of earths lithosperic plates?
Identify a mechanism for the plates moving
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegner could not (Blank).
Shield valcanoes over a hotspot
Which most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
Subduction zones
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the matel at (Blank)
The way the plates move realtive to each other.
A transform plate boundary is characterized by (Blank).
Mt. St. Helens
In 1980, (Blank) was the first cascade range valcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-1916.
Basaltic
(Blank) magma is the most abundant type erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
Temperature of the magma content, and dissolved gases.
Which of the following factors help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violently or relatively quiescent?
Shield Volcano
Kilauea is an example of a (Blank).
High viscosity, and gas content
(Blank) tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.
Rock is less dense when its melted
Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because (Blank).
Circum atlantic belt "Ring of Fire"
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the (Blank).
Horizontaly compressive
Which stress situations result in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?
The hanging wall moves down
In a normal fault (Blank).
San Andreas Fault
The (Blank) is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.
Appalachians
The (Blank) are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during Paleozoic.
Up-lift of areas recently glaciated
Which is an example of an isostatic movement?
Surface of erosion
An unconformity is a buried (Blank).
epoch
The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the longest time span is called an (Blank)
Having type of life
Consider the names of the eras in geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic?"
Law of Superposition
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger thand the bed below it?
Correlation
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas?
Realtive
By applying the law of superposition (Blank) dates can be determined.
Palezoic
The era of "acient life" is the (Blank) era.
4.5 billion years
What is the age of the Earth (in years) accepted by most scientist today?
Cenozoic
The era known as the "age of mammals" is the (Blank).
Precambriann era
Which era of geologic time spand about 88% of Earth's history?
Terrigeneous
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called (Blank).
71%
The oceans cover approximately (Blank) percent of Earth's surface.
Southern hemisphere has more water
Concerningthe ditribution of land and water on Earth, which statements is true?
Salinity
The total amount of solid material dissolved in water is known as (Blank).
Rivers carrying salt to sea, and volcanoes out gassing
The dissolved materials in seawater are thought to originate from chemical weathering of rocks on the continents and also from (Blank).
Evaporation and precipataion
Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where (Blank) is high and (Blank) is low.
Temperature and Salinity
Density in seawater is determined by (Blank).
Sea arch
Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
Wave-cut platforms
A flat bench like surface cut in rock along a coast is a (Blank).
Right
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the (Blank) of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Nitrogen
What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Dust reflects sunlight, creates optical effects, and makes condensation and clouds
With which is dust in the atmoshpere associated?
Drops .5 degrees
On the average, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposhpere, the air temperature (Blank).
Ultraviolet
Ozone filters out most of the (Blank) radiation in sunlight.
Troposphere
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the (Blank).
Longer than
The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are (Blank) those of the sun.
greenhouse
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the (Blank) effect.
Day and night are equal
Which one of the folloeing statements is true about the equinoxes?
Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
What are mechanisms of heat transfer?
Cooler Summers
A place located along a windward coast will probably have (Blank).
Stratus Clouds
The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed (Blank).
Cumulos Clouds
The cloud form that consist of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called (Blank).
Cirrus Clouds
High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed (Blank).
Nimbus Clouds
Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds.
Air can't hold anymore water vapor so it must condense to liquid.
The dew point is the temperature at which...
Sublimination
The term (Blank) is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without oassing through a liquid state.
Isotherms
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called (Blank).
Rapid rate of temperature change
Closely spaced isobars often indicate (Blank).
Counter-clock-wise towards the center
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow (Blank).
Clear Weather
High air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).
Rainy/Stormy weather
Low air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).
The prevailing westerlies
Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?
Day
A sea breeze usually originates during the (Blank)
Jetstreams
Fast moving current of air found near the top of the troposphere are called (Blank).
They happen in the spring, in the mid-west, and form under cumulonimbus clouds
Which one of the following statements is true of tornadoes?
Large, form on warm oceans, and contain heavy rain and winds.
Hurricanes generally are (Blank).
Coal
The combustion of (Blank) has added great quantities of CO2 to the atmosphere.
Zodiac Belt
The belt of constellations through which all the planets move is called the (Blank).
Constellations
Patterns or configurations of stars named in honor of mythological characters are called (Blank).
We rotate at exactly the same rate
We only ever see one side of the Moon facing Earth because (Blank).
Rotation and Revolution
The two primary motions of the Earth are (Blank) and (Blank).
Gravity and Inertia
The planets stay in orbit around the Sun because of a balance between (Blank) and (Blank).
Big-Bang Theory
The (Blank) explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
Jupiter
As the solar system was forming (Blank) came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and becoming a second Sun.
Meteors
(Blank) are small, extraterrestrial particles that glow brightly and burn up as they travel through Earth's atmosphere.
Mars and Jupiter
The belt (orbit) of the asteroids is located between (Blank).
Venus
The high surfaces of this planet have been attributed to the greenhouse effect.
Uranus
The only planet in the solar system whose axis of rotation lies close to its equatorial plane is (Blank).
Comets
The spectacular bodies that have been compared to large, dirty snowballs are called (Blank).
Hydrogen and Helium
The Sun is composed almost entirely of two gases. They are (Blank) and (Blank).
Gravity
Which of the following is not considered a form of electromagnetic radiation?
Red
Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?
The Doppler effect
To determine whther a celestial is approaching or receding Earth, astronomers employ (Blank).
Reflecting
Nearly all large optical telescopes built today are (Blank).
Solar Flares
The most explosive events to occur on the sun are (Blank).
Nuclear Fusion
The source of the Sun's energy is (Blank).
4 Hydrogen atoms into 1 Helium
The Sun produces energy by converting (Blank).
Redder
In the case of light, when source is moving away, its light appears (Blank) than it actually is.
Electromagnetic
Visible light emitted from the clestial bodies is only a small part of an array of energy called (Blank) radiation.
The Red-Shift Theory
The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called (Blank).
Light-year
One of the most common units ised to express stellar distance is the (Blank).
Magnitude
The measure of a star's brightness is called its (Blank).
Stellar Parallax
The distance to stars can be determined from (Blank).
Galaxies
Which one of the objects listed belowhas the largest size?
Milky-Way
Our galaxy is called the (Blank).
Blue
Which color stars have the hottest surface temperature?
Red
Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature?
Magnitude
The measure pf a star's brightness is called its (Blank).
Blackhole
A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a (Blank).
Main-sequence
The Sun belongs to this class of stars.
White Dwarf
The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a (Blank).
Absolute magnitude and Temperature
The H-R Diagram compares a stars (Blank) and (Blank).