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Earth Science Final
A (Blank) ia a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as (Blank).
State the problem, gather information, form a hypothesis, test, form a conclusion.
All of the following are possible steps of the scientific investigation.
A (Blank) system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as (Blank).
A (Blank) resource is one which can be replenished over a relatively short time.
What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?
Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?
Gold has the highest density
A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weighs 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams repectively. This indicates that (Blank).
Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as (Blank).
The strong tendency of certain minerals break along smooth, parrallel planes is known as (Blank).
Crystalline, Chemical composition, Physical properties
Which one of the following is not true for minerals? (whats true about them)
Which group of minerals are the most abundantin the Earth's crust?
Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called (Blank).
As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form (Blank).
Which one of the following is an igneous rock?
Magma cools on surface
Igneous rock is formed when (Blank).
The most important mechanical weathering process is (Blank).
In a warm humid climate
Chemical weathering would be most effective (Blank).
Mineral content, Climate, and Topography
Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?
Conatin fossils, Give clues to Earth history, and are important economically
Fresh water coastal areas
Coal beds originate in (Blank).
(Blank) is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.
Metamorphic rock of limestone.
Metamorphic rock of shale.
A (Blank) cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
Cirques and Aretes
(Blank) are erosinal features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.
A (Blank) forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and melts, creating a pit.
Desert pavement is the result of (Blank).
Channel size, Laminar flow, Gradient
Which factors influence stream velocity?
Water, Evaporation, Infultrating the ground, Moving to creeks.
Which is part of the water cycle?
If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is (Blank).
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is (Blank).
Depositional and parallel to the stream
A natural levee is (Blank).
An Oxbow Lake
(Blank) is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.
Rapids and Whitewater
(Blank) are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.
The single most important erosional agent is.
The boundary between saturated, under, and unsaturated, over.
The water table is (Blank).
Caves most commonly form in (Blank).
The source of an earthquake is called the (Blank).
The design of the structture, Intensity of the earthquake, and the nature of the surface.
The ammount of destruction caused by earthqake vibrations is effected by (Blank).
The instrument the records earthquake events is called a (Blank).
The position on earths surface directly above the earthquakes source is called the (Blank).
Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.
Arrival time of P and S waves
The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the (Blank).
(Blank) was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Palezoic.
In the early part of the 20th century, (Blank) argued forcefully for continental drift.
The former late Palezoic super continent is known as (Blank).
India to Asia
The (Blank) is an example of a continet to continent collision.
Convection of heat from the mantel to the asthenosphere.
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of earths lithosperic plates?
Identify a mechanism for the plates moving
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegner could not (Blank).
Shield valcanoes over a hotspot
Which most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the matel at (Blank)
The way the plates move realtive to each other.
A transform plate boundary is characterized by (Blank).
Mt. St. Helens
In 1980, (Blank) was the first cascade range valcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-1916.
(Blank) magma is the most abundant type erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
Temperature of the magma content, and dissolved gases.
Which of the following factors help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violently or relatively quiescent?
Kilauea is an example of a (Blank).
High viscosity, and gas content
(Blank) tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.
Rock is less dense when its melted
Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because (Blank).
Circum atlantic belt "Ring of Fire"
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the (Blank).
Which stress situations result in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?
The hanging wall moves down
In a normal fault (Blank).
San Andreas Fault
The (Blank) is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.
The (Blank) are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during Paleozoic.
Up-lift of areas recently glaciated
Which is an example of an isostatic movement?
Surface of erosion
An unconformity is a buried (Blank).
The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the longest time span is called an (Blank)
Having type of life
Consider the names of the eras in geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic?"
Law of Superposition
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger thand the bed below it?
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas?
By applying the law of superposition (Blank) dates can be determined.
The era of "acient life" is the (Blank) era.
4.5 billion years
What is the age of the Earth (in years) accepted by most scientist today?
The era known as the "age of mammals" is the (Blank).
Which era of geologic time spand about 88% of Earth's history?
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called (Blank).
The oceans cover approximately (Blank) percent of Earth's surface.
Southern hemisphere has more water
Concerningthe ditribution of land and water on Earth, which statements is true?
The total amount of solid material dissolved in water is known as (Blank).
Rivers carrying salt to sea, and volcanoes out gassing
The dissolved materials in seawater are thought to originate from chemical weathering of rocks on the continents and also from (Blank).
Evaporation and precipataion
Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where (Blank) is high and (Blank) is low.
Temperature and Salinity
Density in seawater is determined by (Blank).
Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
A flat bench like surface cut in rock along a coast is a (Blank).
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the (Blank) of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Dust reflects sunlight, creates optical effects, and makes condensation and clouds
With which is dust in the atmoshpere associated?
Drops .5 degrees
On the average, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposhpere, the air temperature (Blank).
Ozone filters out most of the (Blank) radiation in sunlight.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the (Blank).
The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are (Blank) those of the sun.
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the (Blank) effect.
Day and night are equal
Which one of the folloeing statements is true about the equinoxes?
Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
What are mechanisms of heat transfer?
A place located along a windward coast will probably have (Blank).
The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed (Blank).
The cloud form that consist of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called (Blank).
High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed (Blank).
Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds.
Air can't hold anymore water vapor so it must condense to liquid.
The dew point is the temperature at which...
The term (Blank) is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without oassing through a liquid state.
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called (Blank).
Rapid rate of temperature change
Closely spaced isobars often indicate (Blank).
Counter-clock-wise towards the center
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow (Blank).
High air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).
Low air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).
The prevailing westerlies
Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?
A sea breeze usually originates during the (Blank)
Fast moving current of air found near the top of the troposphere are called (Blank).
They happen in the spring, in the mid-west, and form under cumulonimbus clouds
Which one of the following statements is true of tornadoes?
Large, form on warm oceans, and contain heavy rain and winds.
Hurricanes generally are (Blank).
The combustion of (Blank) has added great quantities of CO2 to the atmosphere.
The belt of constellations through which all the planets move is called the (Blank).
Patterns or configurations of stars named in honor of mythological characters are called (Blank).
We rotate at exactly the same rate
We only ever see one side of the Moon facing Earth because (Blank).
Rotation and Revolution
The two primary motions of the Earth are (Blank) and (Blank).
Gravity and Inertia
The planets stay in orbit around the Sun because of a balance between (Blank) and (Blank).
The (Blank) explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
As the solar system was forming (Blank) came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and becoming a second Sun.
(Blank) are small, extraterrestrial particles that glow brightly and burn up as they travel through Earth's atmosphere.
Mars and Jupiter
The belt (orbit) of the asteroids is located between (Blank).
The high surfaces of this planet have been attributed to the greenhouse effect.
The only planet in the solar system whose axis of rotation lies close to its equatorial plane is (Blank).
The spectacular bodies that have been compared to large, dirty snowballs are called (Blank).
Hydrogen and Helium
The Sun is composed almost entirely of two gases. They are (Blank) and (Blank).
Which of the following is not considered a form of electromagnetic radiation?
Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?
The Doppler effect
To determine whther a celestial is approaching or receding Earth, astronomers employ (Blank).
Nearly all large optical telescopes built today are (Blank).
The most explosive events to occur on the sun are (Blank).
The source of the Sun's energy is (Blank).
4 Hydrogen atoms into 1 Helium
The Sun produces energy by converting (Blank).
In the case of light, when source is moving away, its light appears (Blank) than it actually is.
Visible light emitted from the clestial bodies is only a small part of an array of energy called (Blank) radiation.
The Red-Shift Theory
The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called (Blank).
One of the most common units ised to express stellar distance is the (Blank).
The measure of a star's brightness is called its (Blank).
The distance to stars can be determined from (Blank).
Which one of the objects listed belowhas the largest size?
Our galaxy is called the (Blank).
Which color stars have the hottest surface temperature?
Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature?
The measure pf a star's brightness is called its (Blank).
A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a (Blank).
The Sun belongs to this class of stars.
The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a (Blank).
Absolute magnitude and Temperature
The H-R Diagram compares a stars (Blank) and (Blank).