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Chemistry Ch. 9 fed
Terms in this set (41)
single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of one or more valence electrons
composed of more than one atom
composed of two elements and can be either ionic or molecular
compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
Law of Definite Proportions
in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of elements are always in the same proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ration of small whole numbers
are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table.
The subscript indicates how many of the atoms are present in the compound.
The superscripts in chemical formula are the overall charge of the species
An equality between two ratios.
the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons.
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
More than one substance mixed together
Ex: Water & Coffee
all looks the same, can look like a signal substance.
Ex: Vanilla Ice Cream
Can see the parts of the mixture, not just one.
Ex: Salsa, Rainbow Sherbert
Is a ratio of mass and volume
What are subatomic partices
Protons, Nuetrons, and Electrons
Name two physical properties that could be
used to distinguish between water and ethanol.
melting point and boiling point
What is the difference between homogeneous
mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures?
Heterogeneous mixtures have a non- uniform composition with two or more phases. Homogeneous mixtures have a uniform composition.
What is the goal of a distillation? Describe briefly how this goal is accomplished.
The goal is to separate the components of a solution. The solution is boiled to produce a vapor, which is condensed to a liquid. Dissolved solids are left behind.
Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change. For any chemical change, list at least one clue to support your answer.
a. A copper wire is bent.
b. Charcoal burns in a grill.
c. Bread dough rises when yeast is added.
d. Sugar dissolves in water.
b. chemical (color change)
c. chemical (production of a gas)
Which type of property cannot be observed with- out changing the composition of a substance?
classify the following properties of silicon as chemical or physical properties.
A. blue-gray color
C. doesnt dissolve in water
D. melts at 1410 degrees
E. reacts vigorously with fluorine
list the SI base unit of measurment for each of these quantities A. Time
Would you expect two electrons to attract or repel each other?
Repel each other because they are both negative charges
How do the charge and mass of a neutron compare to the charge and mass of a proton?
A neutron has no charge and an proton has a positive charge. A neutron has a relative mass of 1 and a proton has a relative mass of +1
Why is an atom electrically neutral?
Protons and electrons cancel each other out
How many protons are in the nuclei of each element?
how is average mass different from a weighted average mass?
Average mass is different from weighted average mass because average mass is unweighted, meaning each entry has an equal weight. Entries in weighted average mass have a weighing factor that is multiplied into it.
How are the elements rearranged in modern periodic tables?
The classic Periodic Table organizes the chemical elements according to the number of protons that each has in its atomic nucleus.
how is the number of electrons in atom given element related to the atomic number of that element
The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element. In an uncharged atom, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.
Why are atoms considered the basic building blocks of matter even though smaller particles exist?
atoms are smallest units that fully exihibits all the properties of that element. those smaller particles dont exhibit all the properties
What makes isotopes of the same element chemically alike?
they have identical numbers of protons and electrons, which are the subatomic particles responsible for chemical behavior.
how many orbitals are in the 2p sublevel
The 2p sublevel contains three 2p orbitals
How many sublevels are in the following principal energy levels?
a. 1 (only "s")
b. 2 ("s", "p")
c. 3 ("s", "p", "d")
d. 4 ("s", "p", "d", "f")
how many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of these atoms
2 electrons are in the 6th level
1 electrons are in the 3th level
3 electrons are in the 3th level
6 electrons are in the 2nd level
What is the maximum number of electrons that can go into each of the following sublevels?
Recommended textbook explanations
Donald J. DeCoste, Steven S. Zumdahl
General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts
Kenneth A. Goldsby, Raymond Chang
Bruce Edward Bursten, Catherine J. Murphy, H. Eugene Lemay, Matthew E. Stoltzfus, Patrick Woodward, Theodore Brown
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