chapter 7 human physiology

what are the overlapping functions of the nervous system?
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nodes of ranviergaps in the myelin sheathsensory nuerona nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous systemresting membrane potential (1)at rest, inside is neg charged, outside is pos charged. it is polarizeddepolarization (2)when neuron is stimulated, the charges are reversed (sodium in, potassium leaves)repolarization (3)once signal is done, it will return to resting state (3 sodium out for every 2 potassium)synapsesite of transmission of electric nerve impulses. impulses then flow through the channels into or out of neuronsreflexinvoluntary, automatic responsesreflex arc (1)sensory receptorreflex arc (2)sensory neuronreflex arc (3)association/interneuronreflex arc (4)motor neuronreflex arc (5)effector organsensory receptorpicks up and receives signal from stimulussensory neuroncarrie's signal from receptor to CNSassociation/interneuronsensory division to motor divisionmotor neuronbrain to effectoreffector organresponds to signal, causes reflexautonomic nervous systemPNS, involuntary (heart rate, blood pressure, etc)sympathetic nervous systemfight or flight!CNS (central nervous system)brain and spinal cordPNS (peripheral nervous system)cranial nerves and spinal nervesalzheimer's diseasean irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioningcerebellumback of brain, balance and posturecorpus callosumconnects hemispheresefferent (motor)carry impulses away from CNS (afferent towards)hypothalamusgland in brain that controls hormones, releases to pituitary glandmedulla oblongatalowest part of brain, transmits signals between spinal cord and higher parts of the brain (autonomic activities)multiple sclerosis (MS)causes damage to nerve fibers in the CNS, can lead to vision problems and weaknessoccipital lobeback of head, visionparietal lobetouch, pain, temp, position, etcreflexinvoluntary response to a stimulusfight or flight responsethe initial reaction of the body to stress during the alarm stage (sympathetic nervous system)frontal lobebehind forehead, behavior and personalitygyri/sulcifolds in the brain (wrinkles)synaptic cleftspace that separates a neuron and it's target celltemporal lobebehind ears, memory and audiomeningesthree protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cordmeninges functionprotect CNSout layer of meningesdura matter: attaches brain to skullmiddle layer of meningesarachnoid matter: web likein layer of meningespia matter: clings to brainhow do drugs effect braintheir chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter in the body, drugs attach and activate neuronsprimary somatic motor cortexcontrols movementprimary somatic sensory cortexreceives sensory signalssomatic sensory associationinterprets signals from senseswernickers areaunderstands speechmid brainconnects brain to spinal cord