Revolutionary War Test (1775-1783)

1 / 60
rights that belong to all people from birth
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (60)
The date the Continental Congress adopted & signed DeclarationJuly 4th, 1776How many parts are there to the declaration?4Who won the Battle of Long Island?BritishThe victories at _______and_______ gave the Americans new hopeTrenton & PrincetonBritish Gen. Burgoyne wanted to cut off New England from the other colonies by trying to capture which city?AlbanyDuring the early years of the war, in what region did the fighting mostly take place?NorthThe victory at the Battle of _____was a turning point in the war because it ended the British threat to New England, _____American spirits, and led to _____allying with the coloniesSaratoga, boosted, FranceIn February ______, the French agreed to recognize the new nation and provide military aid1778Led colonial troops at bunker hillColonel William Prescottcommander of Continental ArmyGeorge Washingtonleader of British troops in New EnglandGeneral William Howeauthor of "Common Sense"Thomas PaineVirginian who introduced resolution for independence in CongressRichard Henry Leeauthor of the Declaration of IndependenceThomas Jefferson"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."Nathan Haleleader of British troops in NY/NJ/PAGeneral Charles CornwallisBritish General who wanted to cut off New EnglandGeneral John BurgoyneFrench king who allied with coloniesLouis XVItroops on horsescavalryhit-and-run tacticsguerillaarmy surrounds & blockades enemy position to capture itsiegeThe victory at Saratoga and the promise of help from Europe boosted American ________moraleTrue or false? The Continental Congress from the start allowed African Americans into the armyFALSEWhat did African Americans hope to gain by fighting in the Revolution?rights as stated by "all men are created equal"In the end, the ________ were more successful in creating alliances with the Native Americans in the West.BritishSir Henry Clinton, knew that many _______ lived in the southern backcountry, so he hoped they would join the British troops.loyalistsTreaty of Paris 1783Treaty: -stated that US was an independent nation -Florida was returned to spain -and state legislatures would pay Loyalists for property that had lost in the war US got all of the area east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of CanadaFighting begins in the North: -Colonists met at the _____ _________ __________ in Philadelphia after the battles at Lexington and Concord. -Delegates sent the _____ ______ ______ to King George, declaring their loyalty to him and asking him to repeal the Intolerable Acts. -This angered the king; so he sent 20,000 more troops to the colonies. -______ ______ led the _______ ________ ______ from Vermont in a surprise attack on Fort ________. -______surrendered -helped gain a supply of cannons* and gunpowder* -Gave Americans control of a key route into ______2nd continental congress, Olive Branch Petition, Ethan Allen, Green Mountain Boys, Ticonderoga, British, CanadaIn the battle of _______ ________ Colonel ________ _______ led colonists up Bunker / Breed Hills to fire on British ships but General _______ saw (British General). This general took 3 tries to attack both hills after colonists patiently waited. (1000 British died > 400 colonists died) -proved____ could fight bravely -proved ____ were not easy to defeatBattle of Bunker Hill, William Prescott, Howe, Americans, British(After battle of Bunker Hill) -________ reached Boston and had to unite all soldiers -Cannons from ______ were brought on Dorchester Heights -General _____ and troops left for Halifax, ______ -British ordered ______ of ports -King _____ sent ______ (German mercenaries): troops for hireWashington, Ticonderoga, Howe, Canada, blockade, george, HessiansA dose of "Common Sense" -Dr. _____of Philadelphia convinced _____ _____ to write essay urging colonies to declare independence -called _____ ______ (1776) -says they did not owe ______ -did not own any ____ to British -time to part from England -changed the man of many colonists and congressmanRush, Thomas Paine, common sense, loyalty, money,The Fight for Boston -The British won at both Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill, but they lost many more men than the Americans. -First major battle of the Revolution -Showed bravery of colonists and strength of British -Washington earned the loyalty of his troops from various colonies and they began to work together -Soldiers dragged cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga to Boston -General Howe and his troops retreated to Canada -King George III's Reaction -Ordered a blockade of all colonial ports -Used mercenaries from Germany to help fight the colonistsBattle of Bunker HillMember of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence. (VA)Richard Henry LeeDeclaration: -Congress formed committee to make declaration -Jefferson, Franklin, John Adams, Livingston, and Sherman -______ _____ chosen to write -______ issue stalled talks for weeks ("all men are created equal") -congress voted on July ____ -Adopted and signed July____ -_____ _____signed first (head of congress)Thomas Jefferson, slavery, 2, 4, John HancockDeclaration of Independence 1)______(intro): reasons why congress wrote the declaration 2) _______ ___ _______:natural rights of citizens -L_____, L____, and _____ of __________ -if government fails to protect citizens, then right of citizens to throw off government 3) Colonists' _______ at British government 4) colonists are f____ and i________Preamble, declaration of rights, life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, complaints, free, independentAmerican Weaknesses and Strengths: Weaknesses: -shortage of ____ -_____ trained -not well equipped (congress lacked power to raise _____) Strengths: -patriotism -received help from _______ - ______ _______ as leader -experienced and inspired courage -Familiar with _____mean, poorly, money, French, George Washington, landBritish's Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths: -Many soldier and _______ -____ trained (largest navy/artillery/open ground) -Well supplied (food, uniforms, weapons) Weaknesses: -Sending _____ and news was slow and costly (distance) -troops not ____ about fighting -____leadership -didn't know landmercenaries, well, troops, passionate, poorDefeat in New York British Plan: General ____ capture NYC then destroy _____ -August 27th 1776: both armies met in _____ -_____ destroyed ______ -_____ thought Washington would surrender, so halted fighting and Washington _____ -British would chase Americans through ___, ____, and ____ -______ _____ -caught spying on British for Washington "I have only one regret that I have one life to live for my country"Howe, Massachusetts, Brooklyn, British, Americans, Howe, retreated, NY, NY, PA, Nathan HaleHarsh Winter -Americans set up camp in ______ -miserable weather -lack of ____ = soldiers grew weak -little _____ = no warmth -Brought sickness and disease -___ were down to few thousand -thousands took offer to remain peaceful with British because thought war was over -"___ ____": Thomas Paine's new pamphlet that promoted victoryPennsylvania, food, clothing, troops, The CrisisSurprise Victories -Washington planned surprise attack on ____ in ______, NJ -Victory in ____ - Dec 25 1776 -____ and his army crossed the ____ river with motto "Victory and Death" -Hessians surrendered -Washington tricked general _____ by leaving fires meanwhile Continental Army was moving on -week captured more troops at ______ -electrified patriots and made British rethink warHessians, Trenton, Trenton, Washington, Delaware, Cornwallis, PrincetonThe Tide Begins to Turn -_____New Strategy: No big battles & be defensive to tire them out -_____New Strategy by ________: Control ____ to cut off New England -General _____ and General _____ Canada to Albany (south) -General _____ would move North to meet 2 problems with British plan: -route to _____ to _____ was woods and baggage to heavy -General ____ captured Philly but stayed in PAUS, British, Burgoyne, Albany, Burgoyne, Leger, Howe, Canada, Albany, HoweTurning Point - Battle of ____ -____ outnumbered ____, but ____ ordered attack -____ surrendered on 10/17/77 -showed continental army could stand up to British -Led ____ to become allies of US -Sent money, weapons, troops, and warshipsSaratoga, Americans, British, Burgoyne, British, FrenchWinter Valley Forge -Harsh winter again but survived bc of aid -____ ____ ___ ______ (prussia) -in charge of drilling and training -____ __ _____ (French) -helped raise troops' spiritsBaron Friedrich von Steubon, Marquis de LafayetteBattle of Monmouth -___ ___ ____ - new leader of British -Gave up Philly and wanted to go back to _____ -June 28, 1778 -Caught up with retreating British -Americans defeated British but slipped away -War over in NorthSir Henry Clinton, NYC,WEST -_____ ____ sided with British bc convinced them more whites would go on their land -1779- ____ _____ ____ (patriot) made troops look bigger than reality and took over British Fort ______ in Ohio AT SEA -Sept 1779- ____ ___ ___ (first leader of our navy)- captured British warship ____ on the North Sea with smaller shipsNative Americans, George Rodgers Clark, Vincennes, John Paul Jones, SerapisWar Goes South -_____ _____ new plan: move south for Loyalists -_____ led successful attacks on ______, GA & ___ and ____ Carolina -_____ (soldiers who operated on own)- kept US cause alive against British -"Swamp "Foxes" (Francis____) Hit and run tacticsSir Clinton, Cornwallis, Savannah, North, South, Guerrillas, MarionBattle of ______ ______, South Carolina (10/7/1780) -barefooted patriots defeated British showing new British strategy might not work (PATRIOTS WON) -General _____ ____ (patriot)- sent to tire _____ (British gen.) out by using local geography -General _____ & ______ (patriots) gave heavy losses to British at bloodiest battle of war at _____ ____ , NCKings Mountain, Nathaniel Greene, Cornwallis, Greene, Morgan, Gulliford CourthouseOn to Virginia -General ____ moved troops to VA to cut off supplies from South -____ ____ - (British) burned capital of Richmond, VA and other towns -US traitor: Former general at ____ point -Tried to give West Point to British -mad he wasn't given enough credit and wanted money -never capturedCornwallis, Benedict Arnold, West,Battle of ______ - Oct 6, 1781 -General ____ moved troops to Yorktown (peninsula) to rest and resupply -______sent 8,000 troops and 29 warships -Washington's new strategy: set a trap for Cornwallis -surround them and use ______ at sea to cut off supplies and rescue attempt -Oct 19, 1781: 8000 British surrendered -Cornwallis didn't go to ceremonyYorktown, Cornwallis, France, warships,What treaty is this? -Took___years for King George to accept defeat -Americans gained ____ although approx. 25,000 were killed -set new boundaries -___ got: land west to Mississippi river and from Canada to Florida -____got Florida back -US agreed to give rights and property back to loyalistsTreaty of Paris 1783, 2, independence, U.S, Spain