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-exempted an owner of twenty or more slaves from service. -Led to complaints of a rich mans war but a poor mans fight.
- enacted March 1863 by the Union, required all able bodied white men 20-45 into draft
Legal Tender Act
Lincoln signed in 1862, authorized $150 million in greenbacks. - Confederacy never made its paper money legal tender, responded by making more paper money, which accelerated southern inflation.
National Bank Act
-Passed Feb. 1863, established criteria by which a bank could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank noes. - Gave private bankers an incentive to purchase war bonds. -reflected experience and norther political cohesion in wartime
-Former secretary of war & senator from Mississippi . - President of the Confederacy , experienced, honest, courageous
Unions Political Divides
-Northern Democrats objected to conscription the National Bank Act and abolition of slavery
-included sec. of treasury Chase, Sen. Sumner of MA, Thaddeus Stevens of PA. -never really formed a tight group. -felt lincoln was an ineffectual leader
-faith in paper money=faith in government, so the union made paper money legal tender. -made it easier to pay soilders, levy taxes and sell war bonds.
-Clash between President Stevens and his vice president Davis. -Davis felt winning war demanded a boost in central gov't power (so did Lincoln). - Stevens resisted gov't centralization (so did northern Democrats)
Lincoln suspended this in Maryland. -it had required that the detainer of a prisoner bring that person to court and show cause for his detention. -Lincoln's decision was considered an abuse of Fed. powers. -Turned Maryland (with lots of Confed. sympathy) into war zone, that later agreed to join the Union.
Ex parte Merryman
-1861 Chief Justice Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority in suspending the writ habeas corpus in Maryland. -Lincoln ignored Taney's ruling, argued that the constitution allowed this suspension in a time of rebellion
-Norther strategy devised by Mex-US war hero Winfield Scott. -Plan called for the Union to blockade the southern coastline and to thrust down the Miss. River. - Scott felt this would make the south realize the futility of secession and bring southern unionists to power.
First Battle of Bull Run
-July 1861, amateur armies clashed -Confeds. were helped by some last minute reinforcements and by the disorganization of the attacking union, and won the battle. -After battle Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan
George B. McClellan
-Served in Mex-American war, mastered the art of administration by managing midwestern railroads . -west point graduate. -devised the Peninsula Campaign (Disliked by Lincoln, and ended up not working, plan was: move potomac to peninsula ->richmond. depended on water trans. rather than railroads, reduced vulnerability of northern supply lines, while threatening south's supply lines)
Robert E. Lee
-Commanded Confederate army of Northern Virginia. -foe of secession, was bold and willing to accept casualties
Battle of Antietam
-September 17 1862, McClellan's forces met Lee's - South hoped to seize W. Maryland, induce Britain and France to recognize Confederacy. -proved to be a strategic victory for the North. -Single bloodiest day of the entire war due to new tech. being used with old strategies. .
Ulysses S. Grant
-Union General, west point grad, Mex-American war vet. known for his heavy drinking. -1861-62 he retained control of Missouri and Kentucky
- April 1862 Farragut seizes New Orleans for Union after boldly attacking Southern position. 11 southern ships sunk
Monitor vs. Merrimac
-March 1862, First Ironclad battle in history ends in a draw as the Merrimac withdraws after daylong exchange of fire. Union blockade of South is maintained.
-July 1863, After long siege, Vicksburg surrenders to Grant. All of Mississippi River is now in Union control, cut off Confed states West of River, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas
-After victory of Antietam Lincoln announces on the first of 1863 all slaves in the rebelling states would be free. AIM: injure confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, hurt its morale.
Positives of the Emancipation Proclamation
-Lincoln stole initiative from Radicals. -Issuing a military measure Lincoln pacified Northern Conservatives. -Gained support of European Liberals. -Pushed border states towards emancipation (Maryland/Missouri) -Increased slaves desire to go north as troops
Negatives of the Emancipation Proclamation
-it had limited practicality because it applied to areas where union had no authority. -exempted slaves states in the Union and parts of Confed. under union control
-Southern notion of Embargoing cotton export in order to bring Britain to their knees. -did not work because South overestimated its power, and bumper crops in the 1850's weakened demand for cotton as they found new suppliers in Egypt and India
-huge boats covered in Iron -used for transporting commerce. -Britain was making them for the South, Union protested Brits building confed. commerce raiders (brits got scared and decided to buy them back for themselves)
-James Mason and John Slidell are sent to Europe to lobby for Southern recognition. -Union Trent (boat) brought them back to boston as prisoner, this really pissed of the Brits and Lincoln released them
-August 1861, authorized the seizure of all property used in military aid of the rebellion (including slaves)
Second Confiscation Act
-July 1862, authorized the seizure of all property of persons of rebellion and said slaves that came to Union lines were free forever
Union Advantages in the War
-Great Navy -industrialized -Good Railroads -More fire arms -More Men reporting for duty
Confederate Advantages in the War
-Did not need long supply lines -Fought on home turf -Politically united
Confederate Disadvantages in the War
-Bad railroads -no strong Federal Gov't to levy taxes -Food shortages -Needed weapons from England
-relief, education and employment of former slaves. -40 acres of abandoned or confiscated land would be leased to each freedman or souther unionist with later option to buy. -first and only time congress provided the redistribution of confiscated confed property
-July 1863 largest battle in the Western Hemisphere, after three days of fighting Lee retreats, 23,000 union casualties and 28,000 confed casualties. -hurt Southern hopes of victory on Northern soil
-passed in 1862, it embodied the republican party's ideal of free soil, free labor and free men. Granted 160 acres of public land to settlers after five years of residence on the land
Morrill Land Grant Act
-passed in 1862, -gave proceeds of public land to states to fund the establishment of universities -spurred the growth of large state universities in west and midwest
New York City draft riots
-1863, brew of political, ethnic, racial and class problems in Northern society exploded into antidraft protest, more violent in nyc. -pissed off by drawing of names under Enrollment Act, mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed streets they hated the idea of being drafted on behalf of blacks that once emancipated, they would have to compete with.
Woman's National Loyal League
-1863 organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. -leagues main goal was to collect signatures to call for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, but worked on woman's suffrage as well.
Clement L. Vallandingham
-Denounced Lincoln's emancipation proclamation and his suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, called for immediate peace with the confederacy
National Union Party
-temporary organization formed by Republicans - replaced Lincoln's vp Hamlin with Johnson of Tennessee, this hoped to win votes of prowar northern democrats
Ex parte Milligan
-1866 supreme court ruled that civilians could not be tried by military tribunals when the civil courts were open
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