definition of tissue is
a group of cells similar to one another in structure that perform a common or related function
Describe 5 general characteristics of epithelial tissue
cells fit closely together; form sheetlike membranes; little intercellular material between the cells; avascular; membrane has a free edge, generally has a high regenerative capacity
5 major functions of epithelium tissue in the body are:
protection, absorption, filtration and secretion, secretion and sensory reception
how does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia?
stratified epithelia have more layers for protection. Simple epithelia allow materials to move across them and are less protective.
where is ciliated epithelium found?
lining of the respiratory tract and of the male and female reproductive tracts e.g., ductus deferens and uterine tubes.
what role does the ciliated epithelium play?
in the respiratory tract, it acts to sweep mucus superiorly away from the lungs. in the reproductive tract it acts to propel sperm or ova along the tract.
transitional epithelium, how does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia?
when stretched, its top layers are squamous, when not stretched, its top layers are pillow shaped
How do the structural differences of transitional epithelium support its function?
the surface cells have the ability to slide over one another, increasing the internal volume of the organ e.g., bladder, as it fills and maintaining an intact lining whether stretched or contracted
How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function?
Endocrine glands are ductless glands. They produce hormones, Exocrine glands maintain their ducts and manufacture secretions of various types, which are ducted to the body or membrane surface.
what are the three general characteristics of connective tissues?
common origin of connective tissue from mesenchyme, varied degrees of vasculacity and a large amount of extracellular matrix that varies with tissue type all characterize.
what functions are preformed by connective tissue?
protect, support, and bind together other tissues of the body
How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure?
there is a wide variety in the structures of connective tissue. This is relected in the wide variety of functions they perfrom. Also, the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body.
firm structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth
What do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel?
they contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most of the cell volume. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery, giving the cell a "signet ring" appearance.
what two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons, nerve cells?
irritablility and conductivity
in what ways are neurons similar to other cells?
they constain a nucleus and the usual organelles.
describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body
neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body. This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extensions.
what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, cell, and basement membrane
simple columnar epithelial; connective tissue is underneath the cells, the cells are the long strands and the basement membrane is between the connective tissue and the cell
what tissue is this, and find the cilia, connective tissue, and basement membrane
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial; cilia is on top, basement membrane is between the cell and the connective tissue
what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of epithelial cells and basement membrane
stratified squamous epithelial; on top little black dots and basement membrane is seperated between the pink and purple
what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, and basement membrane
transitional epithelial; connective tissue is on the bottom and basement membrane is seperating the cells from connective tissue
what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, mast cell, and fibers of matrix
Areolar connective tissue; nucleus are in the center of the little cells, mast cells are the big groups of cells and the fibers of matrix are the lines
what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, and collagen fibers
dense fibrous connective tissue or dense regular connective tissue, nucleus are the little dots and the collagen fibers are the wavy lines
what tissue is this, and find the canaliculi, lacuna, and matrix
bone osseous tissue; canaliculi are the rings, lacuna are the black spots and the matrix is the white area inbetween.
what tissue is this, and find the matrix, chondrocyte, and lacunae
hyaline cartilage; the matrix is the space between, the chondrocyte is the center of the cell and the lacunae is the outter lining of the cells
what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of fat cells, and vacuole containing droplet
adipose tissue; the nuclei of the fat cells are the circles in the webs, vacuole containing droplet is the big round centers
what tissue is this, and find the cell, cell, and nuclei
smooth muscle tissue; smooth muscle cell is the round dots and the nuclei is in the middle
what tissue is this, and find the intercalated discs, and nucleus
cardiac muscle tissue; the discs are the black likes along the strips and the nucleus are the small dots
the two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are:
dense irregular connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium
four protective functions of the skin are:
prevents desiccation, prevents bacterial invasion, protects against thermal damage and protects against UV radiation.
what kind of granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis
a unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a
tactile or Merkel disc
what substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?
list the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin:
free nerve endings for pain, temperature, messiners corpuscles for touch in the hairless skin, pacinian corpuscles for pressure
why do ulcers occur?
pressure areas point of increased pressure over bony areas restrict the blood supply to the area
tiny muscles, attached to hair folicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold
less numerous type of perspiration-prouducing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions
describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:
1. when capillary blood dlow to the skin and enhanced by nervous system controls, heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of blood flow conserves body heat. 2. activity of sweat glands i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.
which other body areas would if tested prove to have a high density of sweat glands?
face and axillae
cutaneous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; found in the skin; functions are: secretion, oil and sweat, waterproofing, keratin, bacteriostatic acid mantle and sebum, and protect against chemical and mechanical damage keratinization and continuity.
mucous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; lining of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts; general functions are secretion mucus, absorption, ciliated for movement of substances.
serous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; lining of closed ventral body cavities; secretion serous fluid; decreases friction.
synovial membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
connective tissue; lining of the joint cavities of freely moveable joints; secretionsynovial fluid; decreases friction.
knowing that -itis is the suffix meaning "inflammation of" what do peritonitis, pleurisy and pericarditis patological conditions have in common?
all are inflammations of serous membrane