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139 terms

lab a&p 2

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definition of tissue is
a group of cells similar to one another in structure that perform a common or related function
epithelium tissue lines what
body cavities and covers the body's external surface.
nervous and muscle tissue transmit
electrochemical impulses
connective tissue does what to body organs?
anchors, packages and supports
cells may absorb, secrete and filter what type of tissue?
epithelium tissue
nervous tissue is most involved in what:
regulating and controlling body functions.
what tissue's major function is to contract?
muscle tissue
synthesize hormones are in
epithelium tissue
the most durable tissue type
connective tissue
abundant nonliving extracellular matrix
connective tissue
the most widespread tissue in the body is
connective tissue
tissue that forms nerves and the brain are
nervous
Describe 5 general characteristics of epithelial tissue
cells fit closely together; form sheetlike membranes; little intercellular material between the cells; avascular; membrane has a free edge, generally has a high regenerative capacity
on what basis are epithelial tissues classified?
number of layers and cell shape
5 major functions of epithelium tissue in the body are:
protection, absorption, filtration and secretion, secretion and sensory reception
Example of funtion of epithelium protection:
skin
Example of funtion of epithelium absorption:
cells lining digestive tract
Example of funtion of epithelium filtration and secretion:
kidney tubule cells
Example of funtion of epithelium secretion:
glandular cells or kidney cells
Example of funtion of epithelium sensory reception:
free endings of sensory neurons
how does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia?
stratified epithelia have more layers for protection. Simple epithelia allow materials to move across them and are less protective.
where is ciliated epithelium found?
lining of the respiratory tract and of the male and female reproductive tracts e.g., ductus deferens and uterine tubes.
what role does the ciliated epithelium play?
in the respiratory tract, it acts to sweep mucus superiorly away from the lungs. in the reproductive tract it acts to propel sperm or ova along the tract.
transitional epithelium, how does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia?
when stretched, its top layers are squamous, when not stretched, its top layers are pillow shaped
How do the structural differences of transitional epithelium support its function?
the surface cells have the ability to slide over one another, increasing the internal volume of the organ e.g., bladder, as it fills and maintaining an intact lining whether stretched or contracted
How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function?
Endocrine glands are ductless glands. They produce hormones, Exocrine glands maintain their ducts and manufacture secretions of various types, which are ducted to the body or membrane surface.
lining of the esophagus
stratified squamous
lining of the stomach
simple columnar
alveolar sacs of lungs
simple squamous
tubules of the kidney
simple cuboidal
epidermis of the skin
stratified squamous
lining of bladder; peculiar cells that have the ability to slide over each other
transitional
forms the thin serous membranes; a single layer of flattened cells
simple squamous
what are the three general characteristics of connective tissues?
common origin of connective tissue from mesenchyme, varied degrees of vasculacity and a large amount of extracellular matrix that varies with tissue type all characterize.
what functions are preformed by connective tissue?
protect, support, and bind together other tissues of the body
How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure?
there is a wide variety in the structures of connective tissue. This is relected in the wide variety of functions they perfrom. Also, the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body.
attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones
dense connective tissue
acts as a storage depot for fat
adipose
the dermis of the skin
dense
makes up the intervertebral discs
fibrocartilage
forms the hip bone
osseous
composes basement membranes; a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix
areolar
forms the larynx the costal cartilages of the ribs and the embryonic skeleton
hyaline cartilage
provides a flexible framework for the external ear
elastic cartilage
firm structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth
hyaline cartilage
matrix hard owing to calcium salts; provides levers for muscles to act on
osseous
walls of large arteries
elastic
What do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel?
they contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most of the cell volume. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery, giving the cell a "signet ring" appearance.
what two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons, nerve cells?
irritablility and conductivity
in what ways are neurons similar to other cells?
they constain a nucleus and the usual organelles.
How are neurons and other cells different?
their cytoplasm is drawn out into long processes.
describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body
neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body. This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extensions.
tissue: voluntarily controlled
skeletal
tissue: involuntarily controlled
cardiac, smooth
tissue: striated
skeletal, cardiac
tissue: has a single nucleus in each cell
cardiac, smooth
tissue: has several nuclei per cell
skeletal
tissue: found attached to bone
skeletal
tissue: allows you to direct your eyeballs
skeletal
tissue: found in the walls of the stomach, uterus and arteries
smooth
tissue: contains spindle-shaped cells
smooth
tissue: contains branching cylindrical cells
skeletal
tissue: contains long, nonbranching cylindrical cells
skeletal
tissue: has intercalated discs
cardiac
tissue: concerned with locomotion of the body as a whole
skeletal
tissue: changes the internal volume of an organ as it contacts
cardiac
tissue: tissue of the heart
cardiac
what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, cell, and basement membrane
simple columnar epithelial; connective tissue is underneath the cells, the cells are the long strands and the basement membrane is between the connective tissue and the cell
what tissue is this, and find the cilia, connective tissue, and basement membrane
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial; cilia is on top, basement membrane is between the cell and the connective tissue
what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of epithelial cells and basement membrane
stratified squamous epithelial; on top little black dots and basement membrane is seperated between the pink and purple
what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, and basement membrane
transitional epithelial; connective tissue is on the bottom and basement membrane is seperating the cells from connective tissue
what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, mast cell, and fibers of matrix
Areolar connective tissue; nucleus are in the center of the little cells, mast cells are the big groups of cells and the fibers of matrix are the lines
what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, and collagen fibers
dense fibrous connective tissue or dense regular connective tissue, nucleus are the little dots and the collagen fibers are the wavy lines
what tissue is this, and find the canaliculi, lacuna, and matrix
bone osseous tissue; canaliculi are the rings, lacuna are the black spots and the matrix is the white area inbetween.
what tissue is this, and find the matrix, chondrocyte, and lacunae
hyaline cartilage; the matrix is the space between, the chondrocyte is the center of the cell and the lacunae is the outter lining of the cells
what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of fat cells, and vacuole containing droplet
adipose tissue; the nuclei of the fat cells are the circles in the webs, vacuole containing droplet is the big round centers
what tissue is this, and find the cell, cell, and nuclei
smooth muscle tissue; smooth muscle cell is the round dots and the nuclei is in the middle
what tissue is this, and find the nuclei
skeletal muscle tissue; nuclei are little dots
what tissue is this, and find the intercalated discs, and nucleus
cardiac muscle tissue; the discs are the black likes along the strips and the nucleus are the small dots
the two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are:
dense irregular connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium
dense irregular connective tissue makes up the:
dermis
dense irregular connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium make up the:
epidermis
the tough water-repellent protien found in the epidermal cells is called
keratin
what two pigments contribute to skin color?
melanin and carotene
a localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a:
freckle
four protective functions of the skin are:
prevents desiccation, prevents bacterial invasion, protects against thermal damage and protects against UV radiation.
translucent cells in the thick skin containing keratin fibrils are:
stratum lacidum
dead cells are called
stratum corneum and lacidum
dermal layer responsible for fingerprints are
papillary layer
vascular region is in the
dermis, papillary layer and reticular layer
major skin area that produces derivatives (nails and hair)
epidermis
epidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division
stratum basale
scalelike dead cells, full of keratin that constantly slough off
stratum corneum
mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments
stratum spinosum
has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers
dermis as a whole; reticular layer
location of melanocytes and tactile merkel cells
stratum basale
area where weblikepre-keratin filaments first appear
stratum spinosum
region of areolar connective tissue
papillary layer
what kind of granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis
laminated
fibers in the dermis are produced by
fibroblasts
glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the
sebaceous and apocrine glands
phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called
epidermal dendritic or langerhans cells
a unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a
tactile or Merkel disc
what layer is present in the thick skin but not in thin skin?
stratum lucidum
what cell-to-cell structure holds the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together
desmosomes
what substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?
vitamin D3
list the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin:
free nerve endings for pain, temperature, messiners corpuscles for touch in the hairless skin, pacinian corpuscles for pressure
a nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic, define cyanotic
a blue cast to the skin
what does cyanotic presence imply?
inadequate oxygenation of the blood
what is a bedsore decubitus ulcer?
localized area of tissue necrosis and death
why do ulcers occur?
pressure areas point of increased pressure over bony areas restrict the blood supply to the area
produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead
sebaceous glands
tiny muscles, attached to hair folicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold
arrector pili
perspiration glands with a role in temperature control
sweat gland---eccrine
sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues
hair follicle
less numerous type of perspiration-prouducing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions
sweat gland--apocrine
found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of the feet
sebaceous glands
primarily dead/keratinized cells
nail and hair
specialized nerve ending that respond to temperature, touch, etc.
cutaneous receptors
secretes a lubricant for hair and skin
sebaceous glands
"sports" a lunule and cuticle
nail
describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:
1. when capillary blood dlow to the skin and enhanced by nervous system controls, heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of blood flow conserves body heat. 2. activity of sweat glands i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.
with what substance in the bond paper does the iodine painted on the skin react?
the starch
based on class data, which skin area--the forearm or palm of hand--has more sweat glands?
palm
which other body areas would if tested prove to have a high density of sweat glands?
face and axillae
what organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands?
nervous system
name the three common fingerprint patterns:
loops, arches and whorls
cutaneous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; found in the skin; functions are: secretion, oil and sweat, waterproofing, keratin, bacteriostatic acid mantle and sebum, and protect against chemical and mechanical damage keratinization and continuity.
mucous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; lining of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts; general functions are secretion mucus, absorption, ciliated for movement of substances.
serous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
epithelial, connective tissue; lining of closed ventral body cavities; secretion serous fluid; decreases friction.
synovial membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions
connective tissue; lining of the joint cavities of freely moveable joints; secretionsynovial fluid; decreases friction.
membrane type in joints, bursae and tendon sheaths
synovial
epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous epithelium
serous
membrane types not found in the ventral cavity
synovial
the only membrane type in which goblet cells are found
mucous
the dry membrane with keratinizing epithelium
cutaneous
has parietal and visceral layers
serous
knowing that -itis is the suffix meaning "inflammation of" what do peritonitis, pleurisy and pericarditis patological conditions have in common?
all are inflammations of serous membrane
why are these conditions accompanied by great deal of pain?
when serous membranes become inflamed, insufficient serous fluid may be produced. As a result, friction increases and adhesions may form.