PSY 125 Lifespan Development Chapters 1-13 Finial Exam Study (not chapter 2)

Erikson's conceptualization of the epigenetic principle provides the basis for psychosocial theory's sequence of stages
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Gracie helps her mother set the table for dinner without being asked. She lays out napkins and silverware, places the plates in their correct spots, and puts ice in all of the glasses. When her mother realizes that she has done this, she gives Gracie a big hug, thanks her repeatedly, and later gives her a little extra dessert as a treat. In learning theory, we would say that Gracie's behavior has been:
Cosella is conducting an experiment where she assesses how quickly teenagers can run a 100-meter race after consuming specific amounts of caffeine. She divides her sample up into three groups. Group 1 receives a glass of water with no caffeine added. Group 2 receives a glass of water with an amount of caffeine equivalent to that in one cup of coffee. Group 3 receives a glass of water with an amount of caffeine equivalent to that in two cups of coffee. Each participant is then timed as they run the course. In this study, the dependent variable is
Which of the following individuals has the lowest risk of dying from SIDS?Chin, who sleeps on his backWhich statement regarding temperament is false?​Emotionality is unaffected by environmental factors.With regard to handedness, which of the following statements is the MOST accurate?Young babies tend to use both hands interchangeably, demonstrating no preference of one hand over another.Which of the following represents your authors' position regarding the visual system of a newborn?The visual system is relatively well-developed at birth.Marcus wants to know whether or not his daughter, Rebekah, can perceive different distances and depths. He wants to fashion a simple experiment to make this conclusion. Based on the work of Gibson and Walk, what sort of contraption could he build to test Rebekah's depth perception?a visual cliffWhich of the following really underlies the theme of intersensory redundancy?Any information that's presented in multiple senses must be important, so pay attention to it.Jeffrey is a three-year-old who is beginning to make connections between people's thoughts, intentions, and behaviors. According to Wellman (2002), Jeffrey is developinga theory of mind.Your authors note that the various components of a young child's self-concept typically share a common feature. What is it?The features are all observable and concreteAccording to Piaget, children understand the world with scripts, which are psychological structures that organize experience.FalseMillie is only 14 months of age, but has already started using some basic word like "mama," "dada," and "kitty." When her parents take her to the zoo, she points to the goats who are being fed by other children, and yells, "KITTY!" The fact that she is lumping a new animal into her existing schema of a kitty demonstratesassimilationYoung Matthew is playing with his mother. She has his favorite stuffed animal, and she suddenly hides it under his blanket. Instead of looking for it under the blanket, Matthew starts to cry a little, since he thinks his toy is gone. Matthew's tears suggest that he has not yet developedobject permanenceThe preoperational concept of ____ suggests that children in this stage believe that others see the world exactly as they do; that is, that their perspective is the only perspective there is.egocentrismYoung Ruthie is tickled pink to learn that she will be visiting her beloved grandmother who recently moved to a nearby apartment. The first time she walks into the apartment, Ruthie immediately notices the strong scent of the wintergreen-based gel her grandmother used for muscle and joint pain and comments that it "smells funny in here." Soon, however, Ruthie no longer notices the wintergreen scent. However, after Ruthie's initial reaction to the scent would be a(n) ____, and her later lack of reaction to it demonstrates ____.orienting response; habituationWhen Maurice's father walks through the door after the end of a long day at work, Maurice jumps up, claps his hands, and runs to see Daddy. Lately, though, he has been dropping his toys and getting excited when he hears his father's keys in the lock. The fact that the response has changed stimuli is a demonstration ofclassical conditioningWhich of the following underlies the process of operant conditioning?Pleasant consequences lead to increased behaviors, while unpleasant consequences lead to decreased behaviors."Daddy, can you help me get dressed?" Boris asked his father. "You can put on your pants and socks by yourself, but I'll help with your shirt and shoes," his father said. From Vygotsky's theory, Boris's father is using ____ when he does not give his son help on skills that his son has already mastered.scaffoldingWhich of the following represents the correct order in which speech skills develop in babies?crying, cooing, babblingWhen a child's connections between words and referents are made so rapidly that he or she cannot consider all possible meanings of the word, that child is experiencing mappingCaden is a four-month-old child whose parents spend quite a bit of time with him. There is rarely a time when one of them is not holding him, and they always make sure to come to him when he cries in his crib. According to the first stage of Erikson's psychosocial theory of development, Caden should develop a sense ofbasic trustBaby Hughie has singled out his mother as someone who is different from all others. When his mother takes him to a new place, Hughie is able to explore but looks back to his mother every once in a while for reassurance. He also cries when he is separated from his mother for more than a minute or two. According to Bowlby, Hughie is most likely in the ____ phase of attachment.true attachment​Verna struggles with several problems, including anxiety, anger, and aggression. According to research presented by your authors, she is most likely to have had a(n) ____ attachment relationship with her parents during her childhood.disorganized​One-year-old Mathieu is afraid of the dog because he saw his father react with fear to the same dog. Which term BEST explains why Mathieu is afraid?social referencingWhen children play alone but remain aware of and interested in what another child is doing, they are engaging in ____ play.parallelWhich statement is TRUE regarding make-believe?​It seems to promote cognitive developmentPlay among girls is often described as ____, while play among boys is often described as ____.​enabling; constrictingProsocial behavior where both involved parties benefit is to ____ as prosocial behavior where the actor does not benefit is to ____.cooperation; altruismWhich of the following qualities of young children may interfere with their ability to experience and demonstrate empathy?egocentrismFull understanding of gender is said to develop gradually in three stages. What is NOT one of these stages?gender ambiguityWhen children spend more time with people who have different perspectives on the world than does the child, the child tends to experience a reduction in ____.egocentrism​____ psychologists focus on the means by which children store information in memory and retrieve it when it is needed at a later time.Information-processingA memory strategy that involves embellishing information in order to make it easier to recall is called ____.elaborationA person's knowledge and awareness of their own cognitive processes is called ____ knowledge.metacognitiveOn modern tests of intelligence, IQ scores are determinedby comparing a child's score with the average score of same-age childrenThe textbook identifies three ways in which the environment can contribute to differences in test scores. Which of the following is NOT one of them?​peer pressure​Rich and Seth are given an assignment to come up with a theme for the school's book fair. They sit down at a table together and start making a list of different ideas. They decide not to worry about whether each idea is good or not, but instead to put as many ideas on paper as they can and then go back and evaluate each one. Rich and Seth are engaged in ____ thinking.divergentA child who is diagnosed with a learning disability must meet all EXCEPT which of the following criteria?The child is not suffering from any other condition that would explain the poor performance.Young Pinky is having difficulty with her pronunciation of certain words. She often asks her parents for a glass of "wadah." They understand that she wants "water," and they to gently correct her. Even though they repeat the word, emphasizing the "t" sound in the middle of the word, Pinky doesn't seem to understand what she is saying incorrectly. In this example, Pinky is struggling most with ____.phonological awarenessWhich statement about youth sports is true?Sports involvement can provide children with the opportunity to improve social skills.Which of the following are the two dimensions that differentiate various parenting styles?​warmth and responsiveness & parental controlThe ____ parenting style can be described as highly controlling but low in warmth.authoritarianMaryann's mother asks her to go clean up her room, and Maryann promptly ignores the instruction. Her mother asks her again, and the outcome is the same. After a third attempt, this time with a bit of volume, Maryann starts whining that she doesn't want to clean up her room. Her mother finally gives up and says, "Fine, if you want to live in a filthy room, that's your choice." Maryann's mother has inadvertently increased the likelihood that Maryann will whine when asked to do a chore via thenegative reinforcement trapOne form of child maltreatment is called ____, and involves depriving a child of adequate food, clothing, and/or medical care.neglectJeanette has a rather large group of peers, both boys and girls, with whom she shares some common interests. This group is known in the school as the "musicals," and they all participate in choir, band, or orchestra. They frequently get together to play music, discuss performances, or just hang out. In this example, the "musicals" are a ____.crowdYuri is the leader of a group called "The Wannabes." All the other members know that Yuri is in charge, and they respect that. What is the best term to describe this type of group structure?dominance hierarchyAs a "neglected" child, you would expect Juno to be ____ by her peers.ignoredThe ____ child in a classroom is liked by some classmates, and disliked by other classmates, but in neither case is there a high level of intensity to those feelings.averageSome scientists believe that bias and prejudice emerge naturally out of children's efforts to understand their social world bycategorizing.What kind of parenting intervention focuses on two different sets of skills—building warm relationships with a child and developing reasonable expectations and using appropriate discipline with the child?Parent-Child Interaction TherapyAccording to Bandura, experience gives people a sense of self ___________, which to a person's beliefs about their own abilities and talents.efficacySuzy wants to study whether there is a relationship between the phases of the moon and the tides that occur in the ocean. She does so by making nightly observations of the moon and recording its phases, and by measuring the tides of the ocean at regular intervals every day and night. The type of research that Suzy is conducting is best described ascorrelational research.A study in which people of different ages are all measured at the same time in order to assess developmental differences is called a ____________________cross-sectional study.​Identical twins are more similar in temperament than are fraternal twins.True​Some temperamental characteristics are more common is certain cultures.TrueThe confidence level of mothers is related to temperament.TrueWhile observing brain activity, Dr. Smith proclaims, "This brain is definitely experiencing a downsizing in the number of connections between neurons." This indicates that the brain Dr. Smith is studying is undergoingsynaptic pruning.A nursing one-month-old infant may grasp crudely at his mother's breast while feeding. That same child at the age of one year will probably easily hold a bottle or cup, placing it to his lips, and then putting it down when he is done. This change in ability to use the hands and fingers demonstrates advances infine motor skills​Jeffrey is a three-year-old who is beginning to make connections between people's thoughts, intentions, and behaviors. According to Wellman (2002), Jeffrey is developinga theory of mind.While sitting with her parents in a restaurant waiting for service, four-year-old Elana watches as the waitress walks by without taking their order. "Mommy," she whines to her mother, "why isn't she talking to us when I'm so hungry?" Elana's belief that the waitress must know how hungry she is demonstrates the Piagetian concept ofegocentrism.We show Amy two identical glasses containing equal amounts of water. We pour the water from one glass into a wide, shallow bowl. Amy tells us that the other glass has more water than the bowl does. Amy fails to doconservation-of-liquid task.When Max's father installed a new ceiling fan in his room, the "whirring" sound initially disturbed Max's sleep. After a few nights, however, Max was back to sleeping normally, as if the fan did not bother him at all. Max's filtering out of the fan's noise is best described as ____.habituation​___________ occurs when a teacher gauges the amount of assistance they provide to match the needs of a specific learner.ScaffoldingIf a child believes that the name "cat" refers only to her own family's cat and to no other cats, she is a victim ofunderextension.How does temperament contribute to attachment?Infants who fuss often and are difficult to console are more prone to insecure attachments.There are three different types of play in which young children can engage. What is the correct chronological order in which you would expect each type of play to appear?​parallel play, simple social play, cooperative playmake-believe seems to promote cognitive development.TrueResearch consistently finds that fathers and mothers treat their children differently based on the child's sex. Which statement accurately explains some of this variance?Mothers respond to children based on their individual needs, while fathers respond to children based on gender stereotypes.Georgie is taking a chemistry class, where different liquids must be combined in specific amounts in order to produce an end product. Rather than just pouring them all together, Georgie understands that he must combine specific amounts of each ingredient so that he creates the right mixture. Clearly Georgie has reached the ____ stage of cognitive development.formal operationalAn individual's informal understanding of memory, including the ability to accurately assess memory problems and to monitor the effectiveness of their remembering strategies, is called ____.metamemorySaying "runned" instead of "ran" is an example of overregularization.TrueLike adults, children (even very young ones) use others' emotions to direct their own behaviors, a practice called social referencing.TrueIn an experiment the ____________ variable is the behavior that is being observed whereas the _____________ variable the behavior that is being manipulated.dependent, IndependentAccording to _________________________ theory, in order to decide whether to learn more about an object, a child must first decide whether the object is associated with females or males.Gender-SchemaCreativity is strongly linked to ________________ thinking, which refers to the ability to think in novel and unusual directions.DivergentWhen there is an imbalance between assimilation and accommodation processes, children reorganize their schemes to a state of equilibrium in a process called _________________.EquilibrationWhen Ki-Jana asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best describes Ki-Jana's parents?AuthoritativeThe two stable dimensions of parental behavior discussed in your text are level of control, and provision of needed essentials.FalseA ____ is to a small group of children or adolescents as a ____ is to a larger mixed-sex group who are known by a common label such as "jocks" or "nerds.clique; crowdTwo subgroups of ____ children include (a) those who are skilled academically and socially, and (b) those who are physically and/or socially aggressive.popularWhich statement best explains the changes in prejudice that take place during the elementary-school years?Children display less overt prejudice, but implicit bias about other groups remains the same.When children from minority racial groups take IQ tests, their anxiety increases and their increased anxiety may hinder their ability to perform at their maximum level. That is related to their fear to confirm the stereotype associated with their race. This explains _______________Stereotype ThreatThe text cites numerous theories about the underlying issues in mathematical learning disabilities. Which of the following reflects a theory suggested by scientists?A poorly developed number sense provides less precise estimates of quantities.What are the most common three symptoms displayed by Children with ADHD?Hyperactivity, Inattention, ImpulsivityInformation-processing theory helps explain how children learn, store and retrieve information so they can do well in school.TrueWhich evidence best demonstrates an environmental impact on intelligence?the rapid increase in average WISC scores seen during the past 25 yearsHannah is very crafty. She can adapt to different circumstances, plan ahead for situations, and knows when a course of actions she has planned is or is not likely to be successful. According to the theory of Sternberg, Hannah excels at ____ intelligence.practicalin Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence, the ability to analyze problems and generate different solutionsanalytic abilityin Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence, the ability to deal adaptively with novel situations and problemscreative abilityn Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence, the ability to know which solutions to a problem are likely to workpractical abilityPubertal changes that are related to reproduction are to ____ as pubertal changes that are not directly linked to the reproductive organs are to ____.​primary sexual characteristics; secondary sexual characteristicsStatement boys' rate of maturation?Both early and late physical development is stressful for boys.In what way is genetics related to a child's risk of developing obesity?Heredity contributes to tendencies to overeat, to be sedentary, or to be less able to convert fat to fuel.LaTanya has refused to eat more than a few hundred calories a day for the past several months in an attempt to become more slender. As a result, she has lost an enormous amount of weight and she is now severely underweight. She has an intense fear of putting that weight back on. In addition, she continues to see herself as being somewhat overweight. LaTanya's symptoms are most consistent withanorexia nervosa.A primary cause of death that is common to both adolescent girls and boys ismotor vehicle accidents.Which statement is most accurate regarding processing speed in adolescence and young adulthood?By the time most adolescents reach their mid-teenage years, their processing speed is equivalent to that of a young adult.A problem-solving strategy that tends to be very fast and require little effort, but that does not guarantee a successful solution to a problem, is a(n) ____.heuristicPreconventional moral reasoning is based on ____ forces.externalWhen Nicholas and Sanjay are debating whether or not to steal a cool car they just found, Nicholas says, "It's wrong to steal the car because there are laws against stealing, and no one is above the law." This type of thinking best fits with Kohlberg's ____ substage of conventional systems moralityAccording to Carol Gilligan, Kohlberg's theory of moral development places so much emphasis on justice that it is far more applicable tomales than it is to females.Gabe is a 17-year-old high school student who is nearing the end of his junior year. His parents have been asking him about what colleges he may want to attend, but he has done nothing to gather information about the various options. He knows he wants to go to college, but hasn't sent away for any brochures or done any online research. Gabe is currently experiencing which of Marcia's identity statuses?​diffusionPatrick wakes up one morning to find that he has developed an enormous pimple right on the end of his nose. All throughout the school day he is absolutely sure that everyone is staring at the blemish, when in reality almost nobody cares enough about it to even look. Patrick's certainty that he is the focus of others' attention demonstratesthe imaginary audienceWhen Tanya comes home from the 10th grade dance in tears, she runs right to her room and slams the door. When her mother knocks to ask her what is wrong, she yells, "I can't believe he broke up with me at a dance! I don't want to talk about it. Nobody could EVER understand how I feel right now!" Tanya's belief that her experience is unique and that nobody has ever experienced a similarly painful break-up demonstratesthe personal fableOf the following choices, which set of parents are MOST likely to have an adolescent who has high self-esteem?​Barry and Cheryl, who have raised their daughter with reasonable expectations and who discuss their rules and discipline with herYour authors describe a progression of sexual orientation discovery for males who are gay that involves three key components. Which of the following is the correct order of those components?"feeling" different, becoming interested in gender-atypical activities, being attracted to other males​Making threats of physical or other harm is considered to be a form of _____ violence.emotionalForming initial ideas about a career path is to ____ as actually entering the workforce is to ____.​crystallization; implementationThe main assumption of Holland's theory is that people​will be happiest in work environments that match their personalities.____ are more likely to suffer from depression than ____, probably because they are more greatly affected by social challenges during this age period. ​​Adolescent girls; adolescent boysNeuroscience research suggests that the _____, a part of the brain involved in high-level thinking is not fully developed until a person reaches the mid-20s.​prefrontal cortexAccording to Erikson, the major task for young adults is to deal with the psychosocial conflict of ____.​intimacy versus isolationWhich of the following groups of individuals has the lowest death rate during the early adulthood years?​Asian and Pacific IslandersMore than 90% of those who successfully stop smoking cigarettes do soon their own.Which best describes the relationship between LDLs and HDLs?​HDLs break down LDLsAccording to the National Institute of Health and the American Heart Association, a healthy weight is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) at or below25Baltes and his colleagues (2006) have suggested that intellectual development in adults should be examined while considering several different factors. They include all EXCEPT which of the following?​immutabilityJoe is a grandfather of seven children. One afternoon he sits with his five-year-old grandson, Troy, on his lap and he tells him all about how it "used to be back when I was a kid." Joe's ability to remember the good old days reflects ____ intelligence.​crystallizedthinking is characterized by the recognition that correct answers vary from one situation to another, that solutions should be realistic, that ambiguity and contradiction are typical, and that subjective factors play a role in cognition.PostformalMiddle-age adults tend to be more willing to take ____ factors into account when considering the actions of another individual, a skill that is not as readily seen in younger individuals.contextualThe first stage of friendship is to the last stage of friendship, as ____ is to ____.​acquaintanceship; endingSteve and Aisha have a relationship where they both want to share their thoughts and actions with each other. According to Sternberg (2006), their relationship is high in​intimacyPauline has a negative mental model of herself and a positive mental model of her husband, James. According to the research conducted by Schmidt and colleagues (2004), Pauline would be described as having a ____ romantic attachment with James.​preoccupiedResearch conducted by DePaulo (2006) found that people associate the qualities "caring," "kind," and "giving" with married people approximately 50% of the time, while the same descriptors were associated with single people only about ____% of the time.2Your textbook notes that the median age of marriage has increased by several years in the last four decades. Which of the following is a benefit of this delayed entry into marriage?​Getting married later seems to decrease the likelihood of divorceAccording to ____ theory, marriages are most likely to be successful when each partner contributes something to the relationship that would be difficult for the other partner to provide.​exchangeThe most common form of family in Western societies is the ____ family and The most common form of family around the world is the ____ family.nuclear, extendedThe average age at which a woman gives birth to her first child has changed because of ____ and women postponing having children for career purposes.​a decrease in teen birthrateMany single parents report complex feelings, such as frustration, failure, and guilt. This often leads them to behave in a(n) ____ toward their children.​​overindulgentGuy has been struggling since he and his wife finalized their divorce. He still speaks with her at least once a day, has not dated anyone, and isn't developing any new friendships. Experts would say that Guy is experiencing a(n)​divorce hangover.