40 terms

EBHS Social 20-1 World War I (3B)

Use to study for quiz at the end of Student Booklet 3B
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Causes of World War I
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, creation of alliances (Central and Allied Powers); immediate cause: assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (heir to Austrian throne) by a Serb on June 28, 1914
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1917 treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (joined by Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire)
Allies
Great Britain, France, Russia
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through neutral Belgium then attack France; Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
1)stripped Germany of all planes, subs, limit to 100000 men 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Belgium in WW1
was used as a back door for Germany after they conquered it but German invasion caused Britain to join the war due to being an ally.
Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
WW1 methods
Tanks, poison gas, land mines to blow up trenches, advanced artillery, trench warfare
weapon that caused stalemate
machine gun
Why did the U.S. enter World War I?
-Germany was attacking American ships
-Violating international law (Germany)
- The Zimmerman telegram
militarism
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
nationalism
pride in one's country
imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
armistice
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
reparations
payment for damages after a war
George Clemenceau
French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919. Pushed for heavy reparations from Germans. Wanted to make Germans suffer and help break Germany up.
Vittorio Orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Lloyd George
British prime minister, although he was re-elected for his popular campaign of making Germany pay for the war, he ended up fighting the most for German interests in the Versailles Treaty because he feared communism
ultimatum
a final proposal or statement of conditions; no options
Woodrow Wilson
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Zimmerman telegram
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
Paris Peace Conference 1919
The great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Wilson's 14 Points
This American plan was meant to pervent international problems from causing another war. Main point 1)end secret agreements 2)create a league of nations which was to protect any nation large or small for independence.
unrestricted submarine warfare
type of warfare used by Germany in WWI where they attacked any ship with no warning
sinking of Lusitania
When German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 139 Americans
What were the reasons for the US to enter WWI?
Sinking of the Luistania, Zimmerman note, unrestricted submarine warfare, selling weapons, loaning money to allies. Wanted to make the world safe for democracy
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Czar Nicholas
the Romanov ruler of Russia who was forced to abdicate his throne and flee with his family
provisions of Treaty of Versailles
1)stripped Germany of all military 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Otto van Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy
militarism
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
alliance system
defense agreement among nations
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Triple Alliance
made up of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. Eventually Italy will leave.
Triple Entente
made up of Russia, France, and United Kingdom. Eventually Italy will join.
Balkans
region in Europe often referred to as the "powder keg" because of its tension