Astronomy Mid-Term Review
Old Tests which will be on the mid-term
Terms in this set (166)
The first quarter phase of the Moon in the northern hemisphere occurs at the same time as the third quarter phase in the souther hemisphere
On the June solstice, the sun rises in the southeast horizon in the Earth's northern hemisphere
An annual solar eclipse occur once per year
Some constellations are never visable for observers living in North America
Although all known stars appear to rise along the eastern horizon, astronomers may someday discover a star that rises along the western horizon
It is possible for the Moon to rise at the same time as the Sun
During totality of a lunar eclipse, the Moon completely disappears from view on the night sky
Copernicus' model was significantly better at predicting future positions of planets than Ptolemy's
Galileo laid the groundwork for much of Newton's law of motion
During the month of January, the Earth goes through the point of closes approach to the Sun. Using Kepler's second law we can conclude that the Earth moves faster in January than in July
The sun is located at the center of the Earth's elliptical orbit
The inability to observe parallax of stars contributed to the ancient Greek astronomers rejection of the idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun
The Dopper shift is the same if the emitting object is moving towards you at some speed, or you(the observer) are moving towards it at the same speed and it is still
Electrons orbit the atomic nucleus in just the same way that planets orbit the Sun
You are heating a jar full of hydrogen and observing its spectrum. If you add more hydrogen to the jar, the position of spectral lines will change
Emission line spectrums are produced from a hot interstellar gas
The lower the frequency of an electromagnetic wave the higher its wavelength
Discoveries such as that light moves in straight lines and that images are formed from light came from the Arabic(Islamic) civilizations of the Middle Ages
After a full moon, about how long is it unitl the next new moon?
If there is a full moon visible from Paris one evening, 12 hours later in Australia there will be a
Full moon visible
The equinox is the time when:
The number of daylight hours equal the number of nighttime hours everywhere one the Earth
When the Moon and the Sun lie exactly in the same direction in the sky, what phase of the Moon would you see?
A Full Moon sets at:
On what date(s) does the Sun rise exactly due east and set exactly due west?
March 21 and September 22
In the Northern Hemisphere, between what dates does the location of the Sun's rising and setting shirt a little farther south each day?
From June 21 until December 21
Why do the constellations that are visible in the sky at night change with the seasons?
Because the Earth revolves around the Sun
Which of the following statements describe the ecliptic
The extension of the Earth's path on the celestial sphere and the apparent path of the SUn across the celestial sphere
What causes the seasons?
The ecliptic is tilted with respect to the celestial equater
Which of the following is true during the equinoxes?
The sun is on the ecliptic, the celestial equator, and it rises due est and sets due west
Which phase of the Moon sets at noon
If the Moon sets at 10 AM today, what time did the Moon set yesterday?
During which phase of the Moon do you expect to observe a lunar eclipse?
Relative to the stars, the Moon moves from.......... if viewed every night at the same time
West to east
For someone in the northern hemisphere, stars rise in the east and set in the west. For someone in the southern hemisphere:
The situation is the same- stars also rise in the east and set in the west
During a solar eclipse, the .......... casts a small circular shadow on the
Lunar eclipses do not occur every full Moon, because the path of the...... is titled relative to the
Which of the following statements about the eclipses are true?
A lunar eclipse is visible from many locations on the night side of the Earth
At totality during the lunar eclipse, the Moon generally appear.... in color
Eclipses generally occur in pairs, with a solar eclipse about... before or after a lunar eclipse
Which of the following statements regarding the motion of objects on the celestial sphere is true?
The stars move parallel to the celestial equator
Are the Sun and the Moon ever above the horizon at the same time
How much less time is there between when a star rises and when it sets?
It depends on the star
During a partial lunar eclipse, the Moon passes through the:
Umbra and penumbra
If the Solar System were represented by the size of this classroom, how big would the Earth be?
A grain of salt
On what date in the cosmic calendar did the human species begin to exist?
The moon appears larger when it rises then when is it highest in the sky because:
It is an illusion caused by visual comparison to objects on the horizon
Kepler's 3rd Law states that:
The semi-major axis of a planet's orbit cubed is equal to its orbital period squared
The paths of the planets on the sky lie along the ecliptic and are tilted with respect to the celestial equator by:
Copernicus' heliocentric model failed to work as well as it might to predict the positions of planets because Copernicus insisted the orbits were:
One of Tycho Brahe's major contributions to astronomy was to prove that... was...
A supernova; much farther away then the planets
A comet; outisde of Earth's atmosphere
When was it first known that the Earth had a spherical shape
At the time of the Greeks
The general heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus was appealing and eventually preferred by future astronomers because:
It was more visually pleasing and simpler than the complicated Ptolemaic model
Retrograd motion is observable by watching a planet over the course of:
Many days (30-60)
Galileo was the 1st to observe the phases of:
..... used the extensive records of planetary positons measured by... to discover that the orbits of the planets are
Kepler, Brahe, elliptical
Which of the following did Galileo NOT see?
The planet Neptune
Which of the following civilizations were the 1st to apply logic, reason, and observation to understanding the cosmos rather than superstition and religion folklore
How mnay planets were known to the ancients(including Earth)?
.....Created the very first model of the solar system. It placed Earth at the center however it was unable to explain retrograde motion
Which of hte following civilizations maintained much of the ancient's knowledge of astronomy during the Dark Ages?
Which of the following was NOT an argument against a heliocentric solar system?
"We are able to observe stellar parallax"
The semimajor axis of an ellipse is:
The distance from the center of an ellipse to the long end of an ellipse
The eccentricity of an ellipse is a measure of its:
1AU is equal to
The distance from the Earth to the Sun
Galileo's observations of sunspots and Brahe's observations of a comet and supernova provided evidence against which argument
The heavens are perfect and unchanging
Which of the following orbits has the greatest eccentricity?
A... spectrum has bright lines on a dark background
When astronomers study the light emitted from the Sun they notice that the light emitted from the eastern edge of the Sun is blueshifted and the light emitted from the western edge is redshifted. The reason for this is that:
The Sun is rotating
What happens when an electron is an atom absorbs a photon
The electron moves to a higher energy level
Which statement is true about Newton's first law of motion?
A body at rest stays at rest unless a force is applied to it and a body in motion stays in motion unless a force is applied to it
When a bus makes a sudden stop the passengers lurch forward as a consequence of
Newton's 1st law
What is the most likely conclusion that can be drawn about the motion of a star which does not shwo any Dopper shif in its spectrum?
The star may be moving perpendicular to our line of sight
Particle of light
The moon is gravitationally atrracted to the Earth. Is the Earth gravitationally attracted to the Moon?
Yes and the force of attraction is the same
Which of the following statements is true
X-rays have higher energy, however they move at the same spped as visible light
Adam's toy gun emits blue light, Sue's emits red light, Bonnie's emits infrared light, and James' emits ultraviolet light. What toy produces the most energetic light?
The spectral lines of a star will appear... if the star is moving away from the Earth
In the Orion constellation are the stars Rigel, a blue supergiant, and Betelgeuse, a red supergiant. Which star has a greater surface temperature?
While riding a bike, if you stop pedaling you will still continue to move forward due to
If you are lucky enough to get a chance to visit the different planets of our Solar System, which of the following statements will be true?
Your weight will change, but your mass will remain the same
Which force pulls an upward moving ball back to Earth and keep the Moon in its orbit?
Suppose that the Sun started shrinking in size, without losing any mass. What would be the effect of the Sun's change on the orbits of the planets?
The orbits would not be affected
After tying a string to a rock, you twirl the rock around above your head. If the string were to break, what path would the rock follow?
The rock will travel in a straight line before falling down
If you double the distance between two bodies, the force of gravity between them would:
Decreased by a forth
What occurs when an electron is an atom jumps from a lower energy orbital to a higher energy orbital
A photon of blue light has... a photon of red light
More energy than
Consider an apple falling from a tree. Which of the following appy to this situation?
The apple is atttracting the Earth and the Earth is attracting the apple
By observing aspects of an object's orbit(such as velocity and distance) and calculating the gravitational forces acting on it, allows astronomers to deduce the... of the object
Which of the following emits a specturm very close to a perfect blackbody
What spectrum has dark lines on a continuous background
When an astronaut experiences weightlessness in space, their mass is:
The same as on Earth
Wein's law allows astronomers to measure what property of a star?
The surface temperature of the star
Electrons are quantized in an atom. That means
The electrons can stay only in specifically sized orbits
The recoil experienced when firing a shotgun is a consequence of which law
Newton's third law
Star A is blue and Star B is yellow and Star C is red. Which one of these is the hottest star?
The Earth's radius at the equator is larger than at the poles. Where is the Earth's surface gravity more?
At the North and South Poles
As a solid is heated(from a low to a higher temperature) the radiated light will move through what sequence of colors?
Red, yellow, blue
An object's weight can be calculated using which law
Newton's second law
Which of the following correctly lists the various parts of the eletromagnetic spectrum in the correct order from lowest to the highest energy?
Radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma rays
William Herschal's experiment regarding the energy found in different wavelengths of light led to the discovery of which light
A pencil inside a water glass appears to be bent becasue of:
Refraction of light
All modern telescopes are
The term "seeing" refers to:
The distortion of an image due to atmospheric turbulence
An interstellar gas is emmitting 1-meter radio waves and a nearby star is emmitting 1-nanometer x-rays. Which of these can be observed through an Earth-based telescope
The interstellar gas
Why do stars twinkle
Due to the refraction caused by atmospheric irregularities
Which of the following is the most efficent means of recording light?
Charge-coupled device (CCD)
Refraction and reflection are two ways in which
Light is focused
The best site for placing a ground-base optical telescope is
A mountain top
One of the biggest problems for ground based astroomy today is
Light pollution makes it diffucilt to observe faint objects
What is the disadvantage of using a single, large lens in a telescope?
Large lenses are expensive to make, a lens has to be supported only at its edges so the lens can sag in the middle, different colors of visible light are bent by a lens at slightly different angles causing a blurred image
The term "aperture" refers to:
The diameter of a telescope's main opening
X-rays and gamma waves have
High energy and a short wavelength
Which of the following is NOT a solution to "seeing" on Earth:
Longer focal length telescopes
Which of the following is NOT a factor which affects the ability to observe?
All are observation factors
Bill Nye has a 5-ince refracting telescope and Phil Nye has a 3-inch reflecting telescope. Whose telescope has a higher light-gathering power?
Bill's because the larger the diameter, the more light to be collected
In a false color image,
Colors can represent photon energies or the intensity of electromagnetic radiation
The two most important properties of any telescope are
The light gathering power and the resolution power
A model of the Solar System which places the Earth at the center is
One of two points within an ellipse used to generate the elliptical shape; Sun is always located at one of these points
The shift in an object's position caused by the observes motion
A geometric figure related to a circle but flattened into an oval shape
A model of the Solar System which places the Sun at the center
Half of the long dimension of an ellipse
The drift of a planet westward against the background stars
A small, circular orbit superimposed on another circular orbit; proposed by earlier astronomers to explain retrograde motion
Head of the Library at Alexandria who calculated the circumference of Earth by knowing the angle of shadows projected from two locationss as well as the distance between those two locations
Developed a complex model of the Solar System which placed Earth at the center and explained retrograde motion by planets moving on epicycles
The first great astrophysicist; used the measurements and observations of others to uncover mathematical relationships regarding the heavens
The greatest naked-eye astronomer; kept detailed records of his measurements; developed a mofified Earth-centered Solar System
Philosopher who presented arguments in the 4th century that the Earth was spherical
Measured the relative size and distance of the Moon and Sun; was the 1st to propose that the Earth orbited the Sun
Made observations such as sunspots, the phases of Venus, and the moons of Jupiter which his telescope; cemented the idea of a Sun-centered Solar System
Revived the heliocentric model of the Solar System and communicated his idea with the publication of an influencial book; calculated the distance to the planets using trigonometry
The orbits of the planets are elliptical with the Sun at one focus
Kepler's 1st law
The planets do not move at a constant speed
Kepler's 2nd Law
A planet's orbital period is proportional to its average distance from the Sun
Kepler's 2nd Law
Marks completes its orbit around the Sun much faster than Pluto
Either Kepler's 1st of 3rd Law
The time between the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox is slightly longer than the time between the autumnal equinox and the vernal equinox
Either Kepler's 1st or 2nd Law
Occurs when the Moon is furtherest from the Earth due to its elliptical orbit. Appears smaller and dimmer in the sky
The point on the celestial sphere which lies directly overhead
Type of eclipse in which the Moon, due to its relative position in its orbit, does not fully cover up the Sun
The amount of time needed for an object to travel around another celestial object
occurs when the Moon is closest to the Earth due to elliptical orbit. Appears larger and brighter in the sky
An imaginary ball surrounding the Earth which projects the stars and other stellar objects
The line separating the sky from the ground
The amount of time needed for an object to spin once on its axis
A band running around the celestial sphere in which the planets appear to move and which contains 13 constellations
A grouping of stars in the night sky
The tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest and of a body in motion to continue in motion in a straight line at a constant speed
The speed of an object needs to move away from another odd n order not to be pulled back by its gravitational attraction
The acceleration caused by gravity at the surface of a larger (massive) body
A continuum which includes all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
A description of an electron's possible locations in an atom; at such a small scale, the wave nature of matter only allows a description of position in terms of probabilities
The production of light, or more generally, electromagnetic radiation by an atom or other objects
The process in which light or other electromagnetic radiation gives up its energy to an atom or molecule
An object that is an ideal radiator when hot and a perfect absorber when cool. It absorbs all radiation that falls upon it and reflects no light
The number of times per second that a wave vibrates
Type of telescope which uses mirror to collect and focus light
A technique for adjusting a telescope's mirror or other optical parts to compensate for atmospheric distortions
Type of telescope which uses lenses to collect and focus light
An important measure of a telescope's ability which determines its ability to decree fine details
A bending of the path of light as it passes through an opening or around an obstacle; limits the ability to distinguish the fine details in an image
The bending of light when it passes through one substance and enters another
A device consisting of two or more telescopes connected together to work as a single instrument; used to increase resolving power
An important measure of a telescope's ability which is proportional to the area of a telescope's mirror or lens