23 terms

Chapter 13: Crisis and Renaissance

AP European History, Ben Franklin High School terms from the chapter and Gonz's list
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Black Death
term historians give to the plague that swept through Europe in 1346-1353
Hundred Years' War
long war between England and France, 1337-1453; it produced numberous social upheavals yet left both states more powerful than before
Joan of Arc
a peasant girl (1412-1431) whose conviction that God had sent her to save France in fact helped France win the Hundred Years' War
Jacquerie
the 1358 uprising of French peasants against the nobles amid the Hundred Years' War; it was brutally put down
Mehmed II
sult under whom the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453
Great Schism
papal dispute of 1378-1417 when the church had two or even three popes; was ended by the Council of Constance
humanism
a literary and linguistic movement cultivated in particular in the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries and founded on reviving classical Latin and Greek tests, styles, and values
Francis Petrach
an Italian poet (1304-1374) who revivved the styles of flassical authers; he is considered the first Renaissnce humanist
Hanseatic League
a league of northern European cities formed in the fourteenth century to protect their mutual interests in trade and defense
Medici
the ruling family of Florence during much of the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries
conciliarism
limit the power of the pope
Lollards
reform group that was inspired by the Oxford scholar John Wycliffe; true church was the community of believers rather than the clerical hierarchy
Hussites
reform group that was inspired by Jan Hus; the faithful receive not just the bread (the body) but also the wine (the blood) at Mass
Renaissance
period between 1350 and 1550 that revived elements of the classical past -- the Greek philosphoers before Aristotle, Hellenistic artists, and Roman rhetoricians; "rebirth" of classical poetry, prose, and art of the period
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
(1860) written by Jakob Burckhardt; according to Burckhardt, the Renaissance ushered in a spirit of modernity, freeing the individual from the domination of society and creative impluses from the repression of the church; the Renaissance represented the beginning of secular society and the preeminence of individual creative geniuses
civic humanism
the citizens of the community have certain responsibilites
new monarchies
the governments of England, Spain, and France becoming more centralized
Ferdinand and Isabella
(1469) decades of violence ended in Spain after the marriage of these two rulers of Castile and Aragon; first step towards a centralized ("new") monarchy
reconquista
religious wars by Spain mostly fought in the Iberian peninsula; goal was to retake the Muslim territories
Valois dynasty
(Catholic) the ruling family in France; fought the Habsburgs (of Spain) for control of the Italian Peninsula
War of Roses
(1455-1487) civil war fought in England
Tudor dynasty
English ruling family of Henry VII from 1485-1509
Peace of Lodi
(1454) division of Italy into large territorial city-states after the fear that France or the Ottoman Empire would take control of eastern Italy