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French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France

Louis XIV

Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years


Animal whose skin provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost


Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians

coureurs de bois

Far-running, high-living French fur trappers


Part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with Spain

Ohio River Valley

Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists


Strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759


Bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America

Albany Congress

Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly led to success by eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry

George Washington

Military aide of British General Braddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat; Militia commander whose frontier skirmish touched off a world war


Fortress boldly assaulted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France

Frederick the Great

Prussian king whose defeats of the French and others in Germany provided a key to the British victory in the Seven Years' War


Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763

Seven Years' War

The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian war was part; Conflict that, in Europe, pitted France against Britain's ally, Frederick the Great of Prussia

Benjamin Franklin

Advocate of colonial unity at the unsuccessful Albany Congress

Proclamation of 1763

Document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion

Acadians (Cajuns)

One-time French territory, renamed Nova Scotia, whose citizens were removed to Louisiana by the British in 1755

War of Austrian Succession

Conflict that started with War of Jenkin's Ear (called King George's War in North America) and ended with return of Louisbourg to France

New Orleans

Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi, handed over to Spain in the peace treaty of 1763


Leader whose frontier uprising, crushed by harsh British tactics, caused British to attempt to limit colonial frontier expansion

General Braddock

Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early phase of the war

Samuel du Champlain

The Father of New France, who established a fateful alliance with the Huron Indians

Plains of Abraham

Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished

Ft. Duquesne

Strategic French stronghold, later renamed after a great British statesman


Site of a meeting that proposed greater unity and home rule among Britain's North American colonies

Robert du La Salle

French empire builder who explored the Mississippi basin and named it after his monarch

William Pitt

Splendid political orator and organizer of a winning strategy against the French in North America

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