Celtiberian Mythological Characters
Sorry about the shortage of information, it's just that most of these mythologies are so ancient that we don't have very many records. This set was made by Deryk Frank.
Terms in this set (19)
Aernus was a theonym used for a god in the Celtiberian pantheon. The use of this theonym was confined to worship in the vicinity of Bragança. Around this area, a number of inscriptions to a god hailed by this name have been recorded. One inscription, found in Castro de Avelãs, Bragança, was dedicated by the 'ordo Zoelarum,' and this leads Tranoy and Roux to conclude that this god was probably the protector of the Zoelae. Another inscription was also found in Castro de Avelãs, while yet another was found in Malta in Macedo de Cavaleiros, also in the District of Bragança. While epigraphic evidence for Aernus is scarce, its concentration in a reduced territory in association with homogenous aspects of material culture indicates to Olivares a homogeneity in the cultural area of the Zoelae. The meaning of the name is still unknown but compare the Proto-Indo-European roots
aper- 'behind, at the back' and
and *āpero- 'bank' with the regular phonological developments in Celtic.
The theonym Bandua has been found recorded in Portugal and Galicia. The name is found with a number of epithets. In Rairiz de Veiga, Bandua is acknowledged as a god of the Vexillum and partner of Mars.
Candamius is an astral god that was worshipped in Iberian Spain. He is known from inscriptions and place-names in northern Spain. After Roman expansion, he became syncretised with Jupiter.
Cariocecus was the god of war in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Lusitania (in the territory of modern Portugal and part of Spain). He was equated with the Roman god Mars and Greek Ares. The Celtiberians practiced human sacrifice and when a priest wounded a prisoner in the stomach they made predictions by the way the victim fell down and by the appearance of the victim's innards. Sacrifices were not limited to prisoners but also included animals, horses and goats specifically. That was confirmed by Strabo: "They offer a goat and prisoners and horses". The Celtiberians cut the right hand off prisoners and consecrated it to Cariocecus.
Dercetius was a mountain god in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia and Extremadura (Spain) and Portugal). Inscritptions dedicated to him have been found near Braga (Bracara Augusta, the Roman capital of Gallaecia).
Duberdicus or Duberdico, was a god of fountains, lakes, and oceans in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Lusitania (in the territory of modern Portugal).
Durius or Durio was a god worshiped by the ancient Lusitanians and Celtiberians of the Iberian peninsula. He was a personification of what is today known as the river Douro and is usually depicted holding a fishing net. A shrine dedicated to him was known to exist in the vicinity of Porto in Roman times.
Endovelicus (also Endouellicus, Endovélico in Portuguese), was an Iron Age god of public health and safety, worshipped in pre-Roman and Roman Lusitania, Celtebaria, and Gallaecia. He was associated with chthonic oracles and healing, and was probably the recipient of pig sacrifices. After the Roman invasion, his cult spread to most of the Roman Empire, but was always most popular in the Roman provinces of Lusitania (covering most of what is now Portugal) and Betica (located in Southern Spain). Thus he is considered part of the Roman mythology and the related Lusitanian and Gallaecian mythology. Endovelicus has a temple in São Miguel da Mota in Alentejo, Portugal, and there are numerous inscriptions and ex-votos dedicated to him in the Museu Etnológico de Lisboa (the Ethnological Museum of Lisbon). The cult of Endovelicus prevailed until the 5th century, just when Christianity was spreading in the region.
Neto or Mars Neto is the name of one of the deities of ancient Iberia, revered by the Lusitanians and Celtiberians. He was probably a god of war.
Reo Paramaeco is a name appearing on a Latin dedication to a Lusitanian-Gallaecian deity discovered in Lugo in Galicia. The name is in the dative case, for a Latinized name *Reus Paramaecus.
Runesocesius was a deity whose name appears on an inscription from the region of Évora, the Roman Ebora in modern Portugal in the area inhabited by the Celtici in Lusitania. He has generally been thought of as a Lusitanian and Celtiberian god.
In ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was a god depicted in Gallo-Roman art as carrying a hammer or mallet and also a bowl or barrel. He has been associated with agriculture or wine production.
Tongoenabiagus was the god of the Fonte do Ídolo (Portuguese for Fountain of the Idol), a 1st-century shrine in Braga (the Roman Bracara Augusta) with an inscribed fountain dedicated both to Tongoenabiagus and the goddess Nabia. His name may derive from the Celtic root *tenge(o)- (Old Irish tongu "I swear") and so he may have been associated with the swearing of oaths.
Turiacus was a Celtic god of power in Lusitanian and Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal). Turiacus seems to have been particularly worshiped by the Grovii, a people of Gallaecia.
Visucius was a Gallo-Roman god, usually identified with Mercury. He was worshipped primarily in the east of Gaul, around Trier and on the Rhine; his name is recorded on about ten dedicatory inscriptions. One such inscription has also been found in Bordeaux. Visucius is, along with Gebrinius and Cissonius, among the most common indigenous epithets of the Gaulish Mercury. The name has sometimes been interpreted as meaning "of the ravens" or "knowledgeable"; cf. the Proto-Celtic roots
wesāko- 'raven, grebe' (cf. Old Irish disyllabic fiach, Welsh gwyach) and
*witsu- 'knowing'. The variant or mistaken spelling Visuclus is also attested. In a Latin inscription from Rheinzabern, Germany (CIL 13, 5991) dedicated to Jupiter, Apollo, and Visucius, the name SOLI T appears after Visucius, perhaps originally standing for Solitumarus, an epithet of Mercury's in an inscription (AE 2001, 1388; AE 2008, 901) found at Chateaubleau, France. Another inscription is co-dedicated to Sancta Visucia, as well as to Mercurius Visucius. This goddess, apparently a companion or analogue of Visucius, has sometimes been likened to Rosmerta or Maia, who also accompany Mercury on many Gaulish dedications. One inscription dedicated to Visugius has also been found at Agoncillo in Spain; this may perhaps refer to the same deity.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures. She and her horses might also have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. Unusual for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself," was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD.
Nabia was the goddess of rivers and water in Gallaecian and Lusitanian mythology, in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal. The present-day Navia River and Avia (river) in Galicia, was named in honor of the deity. Likewise, the Neiva River, near Braga (Bracara Augusta, old Roman capital of Gallaecia) and Nabão River that passes through the city of Tomar are also named after her. The goddess Nabia was very popular in the territory of the Callaici Bracari with several inscriptions, like the one at Braga's Fonte do Ídolo
Trebaruna, also Treborunnis and possibly
Trebarunu was a Lusitanian deity, probably a goddess. Trebaruna's cult was located in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal). Her name could be derived from the Celtic
trebo (home) and *runa (secret, mystery), suggesting a protector or protectress of property, home and families. Two small altars dedicated to this goddess were found in Portugal, one in Roman-Lusitanian Egitania (current Proença-a-Velha) and another in Lardosa. The Tavares Proença Regional Museum in Castelo Branco now contains the altar from Lardosa. It was located in an area where the people from a Castro settlement founded a Roman-Lusitanian villa. This altar used to hold a statue of the goddess which has since been lost. Nevertheless, it still preserves these inscriptions: TREBARONNE V(otum) S(Olvit) OCONUS OCONIS f(ilius). Which translate as: Oconus, son of Oco, has fulfilled the vow to Trebaruna. A name Trebarune (probably in the dative case) also appears on the inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas as a divinity receiving a sacrifice of a sheep. Following the announcement in 1895 by José Leite de Vasconcelos of the discovery of Trebaruna as a new theonym, a poem celebrating this was published which likened Trebaruna to the Roman Victoria. She has recently become among neo-Pagans, a goddess of battles and alliances. The Portuguese metal-band Moonspell composed a song called "Trebaruna" which is a celebration of the goddess.
Although the name Trebopala appears in only a single inscription, it is of interest because this inscription is in the Lusitanian language rather than in a Latin dedication. It is generally thought the first element is a Celtic one, *trebo- (or a cognate with it) meaning a house or dwelling place. The second element is interpreted either as "protector", or as the attested Lepontic/Ligurian word pala, probably meaning a sacred stone, or as "flat land." Trebopala is therefore said to mean either Protector of the Home, Plain of the Home or Altar of the Home. In the inscription, Trebopala is recorded as receiving a sacrifice of a single sheep (oilam).
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