World History Mr. Rothenberger Jesuit 2018 W/O 27
Terms in this set (208)
Which Roman ruler held the title of dictator or absolute ruler at the time of his assassination by members of the Senate?
What were common citizens of Rome called?
Which Christian leader wrote letters that formed the Epistles of the New Testament to groups of believers?
Who moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium?
Greco-Roman culture is also referred to as what kind if culture?
What were the Roman channels that brought water to cities and towns around the empire?
What were Roman's military forces called?
Which emperor divided the empire into Greek speaking east and Latin speaking west?
What was the period of peace and prosperity that lasted for 207 years in Rome?
Who is considered to be the first pope of the Christian Church?
Which people emphasized duty, strength, and discipline?
Who preserved and spread aspects of Minoan culture?
Who moved into the Greek world and reigned for about 400 years and left no written record?
What terms is used today for the art of Athens during the Age of Pericles?
Who wrote the well known book Elements which is the basis for modern geometry?
What battle formation produced the most powerful fighting force in the ancient world?
Where was the largest Hellenistic statue located?
Sparta's declaration of war against Athens began which war?
Who built an empire that stretched to India?
Alexander the Great
What caused the major difficulties in uniting Ancient Greeks under a single government?
The geography of the region.
Who was driven from Greece shortly before the Golden Age of Athens began?
Why was Alexandria, Egypt, important during the Hellenistic period?
It became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic culture.
What separated the different regions of Greece?
Who fought the Peloponnesian War?
Athens and Sparta
How and how did not the Macedonians conquer Greece?
The Macedonians conquered Greece because they were unusually well trained, Greece had been weakened by the Peloponnesian War, and the Greek city states failed to unify in time to effectively resist. They did not conquer Greece because they received assistance from Persia.
Alexander the Great's victories gave h control of which region?
Which cultures were represented as part of the blend in Hellenistic culture?
Indian, Persian, and Egyptian
What did Athens and Sparta have and not have in common?
They were both city-states, but they weren't both democracies, military states, or leaders of the Delian League.
After conquering Greece, Alexander the Great conquered which regions?
Persian Empire, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
The triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey ruled Rome for 10 years before Caesar and Pompey clashed and went to war.
The major power struggles in the early Roman republic were between which people?
Members of the aristocracy and common citizens.
After the Romans drove the last Etruscan monarch from power, they established a republic which is?
A government where power rests with citizens who have the right to select their leaders.
Roman rulers opposed Christianity because Christians would not worship Roman gods.
Which languages had Latin roots?
Spanish, French, and Italian
As a result of the Pax Romana?
The Romans experienced peace and prosperity.
Under Roman law all persons had the right to receive equal treatment, considered innocent until proven guilty, and be punished for actions not thoughts. They could not be punished for?
The right to seek immediate justice without using the courts.
The Jewish Diaspora refers to?
The forced dispersal of Jews.
What were three reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire?
Inflation coupled with the huge money spent on defense, the invasions by Germanic tribes and Huns, the disruption of trade not a strong military.
The emperor's purpose for dividing the Roman Empire was to make control of the Empire?
What was a mock battle that served as a training exercise?
What was the act of taking away a persons's right to membership in the Church?
Which Carolingian leader reunited Western Europe and was crowned by Pope Leo III?
What system of government was based on the exchange of land for protection and services?
Which code were knights expected to follow?
What was the body of rules and regulations governing religious practices such as marriage?
What was a lord's estate called?
What was the name for a community of Christian men who gave up all private possessions to serve God?
Which leader halted the Muslim invasion of Western Europe at the Battle of Tours?
Who was the English King that led the Third Crusade?
Richard the Lion Hearted
What is the practice of selling positions in the Church?
Who was the founder of the Franciscans and co-founder of the Poor Clares?
St. Francis of Assissi
Who was the pope who issued the call for the First Crusade?
What was the organized effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain?
Who was the most famous and respected Muslim leader during the Crusades?
What was the Crusade that resulted in the looting of Constantinople by Western Christians?
What was the Church court used in Spain to persecute Jews and Muslims?
What is the architectural style most closely associated with the Age of Faith?
What was the style of architecture intended to achieve greater light and height?
What was the Crusade that resulted in the capture of Jerusalem by the Christians and the creation of four Crusader states?
The achievement for which Charlemagne is remembered is?
Building an empire larger than any since Rome.
What is true of Germanic tribes?
They lived in small, closely knit communities, they had a strong tradition of songs and legends, and each tribe's chief had a group of warriors loyal only to him. They did not use a variety of written languages.
Viking raids ceased because?
Farming conditions in the Viking homeland improved.
Eleanor of Aquitane achieved her fame because?
She was the queen of England.
Which group was called the Northmen?
Which group was Turkish nomads?
What is a synonym for serf?
Under the system of feudalism a fief belonged to which category?
In the feudal system, a tithe represented what part of a peasant'a income?
A tithe was a payment made to which type of person?
In the feudal system, what was a manor?
A lord's estate.
What was the chief goal of the Crusades?
To recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
What was the effect of the three-field system?
Farmers produced more food and villagers had more to eat.
What describes the nature of a craft guild?
An association of people who worked at the same occupation.
What did the Magna Carta guarantee?
Basic legal rights
What was the major cause of the Great Schism?
Arguments about which man holding the position of pope was the true pope.
What was the name of the legislative body of medieval England?
Which group was most responsible for the spread of the bubonic plague?
Which of the following was the central issue of the Hundred Years' War?
The throne of France.
Which of the following was a result of the Fourth Crusade?
Western Christians looted Constantinople.
What was the purpose of the Reconquista?
To drive the Muslims out of Spain.
Whose rights did the Magna Carta originally intend to defend?
The English nobility.
What did the decisions of the English royal courts of justice create?
English common law
What were John Wycliffe's main complaints about the Church?
Church worldliness and papal authority.
What were some of the problems faced by the Church?
What to do about married priests, simony (bishops selling Church positions), or whether the Church or king should appoint bishops, not if the pope should reside in Paris or London.
What traits characterized Gothic cathedral architecture?
Sculpture, stained-glass windows, and high vaulted ceilings not rounded arches.
What was one negative effect of the Crusades that has continued to the present?
Hostility between Muslims and Christians
In what kind of language did Dante Aligheri and Geoffrey Chaucer write?
What issue led to both the Magna Carta and the establishment of Parliament?
How to end taxation without representation.
What were the effects of the Commercial Revolution?
Increase in power of the king, workers paid for labor, and more money available for building businesses.
What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?
Art and learning.
The study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what subject?
Human potential and achievements.
For what is the Medici family famous?
For being rulers and supporters of the arts.
What were Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More?
What was the first full sized book Gutenburg printed?
In what did Leonardo da Vinci represent a Renaissance Man?
He was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist.
Luther protested the practice of selling indulgences. What were indulgences?
The clergy selling pardons that released people from performing penalties for their sins.
Who declared himself head of the English Church?
What was John Calvin's major teaching?
Who was the important Catholic reformer that founded the Jesuit order?
Ignatius of Loyola
A book by Thomas More which had come to mean an ideal place.
Why did the Renaissance in Northern Europe lag behind Italy?
No access to classical texts.
What city fell to Ottoman Turks in 1453?
What's was passed during the reign of Henry VIII?
The Act of Supremacy
Who supported artists in the Renaissance?
What Gutenberg invention permitted the quick spread of ideas?
The printing press.
To set aside a marriage as having not been legal is?
What church was the king to be the head of in England?
Where does the term Protestant come from?
German princes that joined forces with the pope and protested Luther's ideas.
What kind of person represented the ideal of Renaissance man?
Someone who excelled in many areas of study.
How did Italy's locations help it to become the birthplace of the Renaissance?
Italy had access to Roman ruins and ancient manuscripts from Constantinople.
What was the lasting effect of the printing press?
It increased literacy and the use of the vernacular.
Why was block printing more useful in Europe than in China?
European languages had a smaller number of characters than Chinese.
What was one of Luther's main beliefs?
All people with faith were equal.
What was the main reason for Henry VIII's split with the Roman Catholic Church?
His desire for a male heir.
What was agreed at the Council of Trent?
The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final.
The Peace of Augsburg ended conflict between?
Catholic and Protestant German princes.
Which idea of Luther influenced Calvinism?
Humans cannot earn a place in Heaven.
Which European country was the leader in sailing innovation?
Who captained the first European ship to sail around the tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope)?
What type of poetry presents images rather than expresses an idea?
Which European country controlled trade in the East Indies?
What were Europeans' main motives for making exploration voyages?
To grow wealthy and spread Christianity.
How did Prince Henry of Portugal influence exploration?
He founded a navigational school on the coast of Portugal.
What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas signed by Portugal and Spain?
To decrease conflict over the claiming of new lands.
The Line of Demarcation established a boundary between?
Portugal and Spain's lands.
Kabuki is a type of?
Which nation's East India Company dominated Indian Ocean trade?
What happened on July 14, Bastille Day?
A mob stormed a prison looking for gunpowder.
Which document stated that men are born and remain free and equal in rights?
Declaration of the Rights of Man
During the Reign of Terror, who was safe from the guillotine?
Why did Napoleon attack Portugal?
To enforce the terms of the Continental System.
In what year did Napoleon seize control of the government?
The heliocentric theory was proposed by?
What did the Philosophes believe in?
Progress for society
The Declaration of Independence was written by?
The action of Napoleon that caused the greatest human losses was the?
The invasion of Russia.
What did Frederick II support?
Freedom of worship
How were Thomas Hobbes and Catherine the Great similar?
Both believed that a monarch should have absolute authority.
What was the law of universal gravitation?
All physical objects are affected equally by the same forces.
Who used Tycho Brahe's data to prove Copernicus correct?
Who founded modern chemistry?
Who is the English politician that argued for he adoption of new scientific techniques such as the experimental method?
Who lived under house arrest because of his scientific findings not agreeing with the Church?
What group refers to the nobles who fled France but still hoped to restore the monarchy?
What is the name of the government body that replaced the National Assembly?
What were the most radical members of the Legislative Assembly?
Who was the director of the Committee on Public Safety?
Who proposed the separation of powers and On the Spirit of Laws?
Baron de Montesquieu
Who argued that civilization corrupts people's natural goodness?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
What is the policy of glorifying power and keeping an army prepared for war?
What region was referred to as the "powder-keg" of Europe?
The Balkan Peninsula
Who led Germany during the last decade of the 1800s and most of World War I?
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Which statement summarizes the Schlieffen Plan that Germany?
Attack France first, then Russia.
Which nation's actions caused the United States to fight in World War I?
What were the Fourteen Points?
A plan for the postwar world.
Who was forced to assume sole responsibility for the war under the Treaty of Versailles?
Why did Bismarck seek alliances that later became the Triple Alliance?
To isolate France
How did the Treaty of Versailles affect postwar Germany?
It left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the German people.
What was the American public's opinion about joining the League of Nations?
It believed that the United States should stay out of European affairs.
What event in Sarajevo ignited the Great War?
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.
What impact did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk have on Germany?
It allowed Germany to focus all their efforts on the Western Front.
What prompted Great Britain and France declare war in Germany?
German invasion of Poland
The German blitzkrieg was a military strategy that depended on what advantage?
Surprise and overwhelming force.
What crucial lesson was learned in the Battle of Britain?
That Hitler's advances could be blocked.
What event occurred on the day described as "a day which will live in infamy"?
Attack on Pearl Harbor
What was significant about the Battle of Midway?
It turned the war in the Pacific against the Japanese.
Which of the following was the location of a Nazi extermination camp?
Which of the following battles marked the final German offensive?
Battle of the Bulge
Where were atomic bombs dropped?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What was Hitler's prime reason for wanting to take Poland?
He wanted the Polish Corridor and the port city of Danzig.
Which of the following factors led to the fall of France to the Nazis?
The fall of Dunkirk and Paris and the evacuation of British forces.
What did the Allies strategy of island hopping in the Pacific involve?
Attacks on islands that were not well defended.
How did Kristallnact demonstrate Nazi persecution of Jews?
Nazi troops attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues.
What was the goal of Hitler's "Final Solution"?
It was genocide of the people that the Nazis considered inferior.
What does the use of kamikaze pilots show about Japanese culture?
They valued national honor more than individual life.
How did the Lend-Lease Act benefit the US?
It enriched the US economy through selling arms to the Allies.
How did civilians join in the war effort?
Rationing, scrap metal drives, and working in war industries.
Why were thousands of US citizens put in internment camps during the war?
They were of Japanese descent and falsely labeled as enemies.
Why did President Truman agree to use the atomic bomb?
To bring the war to quickest possible end.
Mughal emperor that built the Taj Mahal in memory of his beloved wife.
Their religious beliefs are a mixture of the doctrines of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism.
An armed struggle against unbelievers. Also refers to inner struggle against evil.
Known as the "Great One", added more territory to the lands conquered by Babur than any emperor.
Under this Mughal emperor the empire expanded to its greatest size, but the power of the empire weakened greatly during his reign.
Laid foundation for Mughal Empire, kingdom stolen from him as a boy.
In Arabic, this means God.
Refers to the migration in 622 by Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib.
Yathrib's new name.
An Islamic house of worship.
Muslim holy book literal words from the Angel Gabriel
Muhammad's example for living a proper Muslim life.
The duties of all Muslims are called?
The system of law that regulates family life, moral conduct, etc. for Muslims.
The pilgrimage that each Muslim strives to make once in a lifetime.
Encouraged religious tolerance in the Mughal Empire
According to this Ottoman policy Christian boys were taken as slaves, converted, and turned into warriors.
Built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife.
Term for a warrior for Islam
Drew from many cultural influences and reformed life in the Safavid Empire
Central Asian conqueror that interrupted growth of Ottoman Empire
Timur the Lame
Capital city of Safavid Empire
Submission to the will of Allah
Who is Muhammad?
The last and greatest of the prophets.
Division of Islam that believes only a relative of Muhammad is qualified to be a caliph.
Five Pillars of Islam?
Major duties required by all Muslims.
What are the Five Pillars?
Pilgrimage, fasting, Shahadah, prayer, and alms. NO MILITARY DUTY.
Led a life of poverty and devotion.
Sunni and Shi'a difference?
Shi'a believes caliph needs to be a relative of Muhammad.
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