Microbiology Exam 1 - Chapter 1

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1) Microorganisms are involved in each of the following processes EXCEPT
A) infection.
B) decomposition of organic material.
C) O2 production.
D) food production.
E) smog production.
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Terms in this set (60)
11) Protozoan motility structures include A) cilia. B) flagella. C) pseudopods. D) cilia and pseudopods only. E) cilia, flagella, and pseudopods.E12) Viruses are not considered living organisms because they A) cannot reproduce by themselves. B) are structurally very simple. C) can only be visualized using an electron microscope. D) are typically associated with disease. E) are ubiquitous in nature.A13) Microbes that live stably in and on the human body are called the A) transient microbiota. B) human microbiome. C) pathogenic microorganisms. D) virulent microorganisms. E) opportunistic microbiota.B14) Which of the following is NOT a domain in the three-domain system? A) animalia B) archaea C) bacteria D) eukaryaA15) A system of classification grouping organisms into 3 domains based on the cellular organization of organisms was devised by A) Carolus Linnaeus. B) Anton van Leewenhoek. C) Carl Woese. D) Louis Pasteur. E) Robert Koch.C16) Archaea differ from bacteria in that archaea A) have cell walls composed of substances other than peptidoglycan. B) lack nuclei. C) use organic compounds for food. D) reproduce by binary fission. E) are prokaryotic.A17) Who is credited with first observing cells? A) Robert Hooke B) Anton van Leeuwenhoek C) Robert Koch D) Louis Pasteur E) Carolus LinnaeusA18) Who is credited with first observing microorganisms? A) Robert Hooke B) Anton van Leeuwenhoek C) Robert Koch D) Louis Pasteur E) Carolus LinnaeusB19) Biogenesis refers to the A) spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter. B) development of life forms from preexisting life forms. C) development of aseptic technique. D) germ theory of disease.B20) If you were setting up an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation in a liquid medium, which of the following would be essential to the experiment? A) supplying the liquid with nutrients B) starting with a liquid that contains microorganisms C) adding antibiotics to the liquid D) using a sterile liquid and eliminating exposure to microorganisms E) adding carbon dioxide to the liquidD21) The arguments supporting spontaneous generation were finally disproved by A) Louis Pasteur. B) Francesco Redi. C) Rudolf Virchow. D) John Needham. E) Lazzaro Spallanzani.A22) Regarding Louis Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Air exchange was involved. B) A food source was provided. C) The possibility of contamination was removed. D) All preexisting microorganisms were killed. E) Air exchange occurred, a food source was provided, preexisting microorganisms were killed and contamination was preventedE23) The microbial process of converting sugars to alcohol is known as A) fermentation. B) pasteurization. C) tyndallization. D) lyophilization. E) alcoholism.A24) Proof that a microbe could cause disease was provided by A) Pasteur. B) Lister. C) Koch. D) Wasserman. E) Semmelweis.C25) The use of phenol (carbolic acid) as a wound disinfectant was first practiced by A) Lister. B) Semmelweis. C) Pasteur. D) Holmes. E) Koch.A26) Mycology is the study of A) mycoplasma. B) mushrooms. C) protozoa. D) molds. E) molds, yeast, and mushrooms.E27) The first step for directly linking a microbe to a specific disease according to Koch's postulates is to A) culture the blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal using nutrient medium. B) inject a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal into a healthy animal. C) obtain a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal. D) compare the blood of a sick animal to blood obtained from a healthy animal. E) isolate microbes from the blood of healthy animals.C28) In which of the following situations would Koch's postulates be utilized? A) determination of the cause of a new emerging disease by scientists studying disease transmission B) development of a new antibiotic in a pharmaceutical lab C) determination of the cause of cancer in a patient D) formulation of a vaccine against a new pathogen in a genetic engineering lab E) whenever the scientific method is used to investigate a microbiological problemA29) Robert Koch identified the cause of A) smallpox. B) anthrax. C) diphtheria. D) AIDS. E) rabies.B30) Which physician is first associated with vaccination? A) Ehrlich B) Jenner C) Lister D) Koch E) EscherichB31) Which of the following findings was essential for Edward Jenner's vaccination process? A) Exposure to a milder disease form may produce immunity. B) A weakened microorganism will not cause disease. C) Someone who recovers from a disease will not acquire that disease again. D) Disease is caused by viruses. E) Pathogenic microorganisms infect all humans and animals in the same manner.A32) Penicillin was discovered by accident by A) Alexander Fleming. B) Paul Ehrlich. C) Edward Jenner. D) Robert Koch. E) Joseph Lister.A33) Who was the first scientist to pursue a "magic bullet" that could be used to treat infectious disease? A) Jenner B) Pasteur C) Ehrlich D) Lister E) SemmelweisC34) Fungal infections are studied by A) virologists. B) bacteriologists. C) parasitologists. D) mycologists. E) herpetologists.D35) When our bodies overcome the offensive tactics of a particular microorganism, this is referred to as A) therapy. B) colonization. C) disease. D) resistance. E) deficiency.D36) Recombinant DNA refers to the A) study of bacterial ribosomes. B) study of the function of genes. C) interaction between human and bacterial cells. D) synthesis of proteins from genes. E) DNA resulting when genes from one organism are inserted into another organism.E37) Molecular biology includes the study of A) DNA synthesis. B) RNA replication. C) protein synthesis. D) enzyme function. E) how genetic information directs protein synthesis.E38) Microorganisms are essential to our life. Each of the following is an example of a beneficial function of microorganisms EXCEPT A) alternative fuel production. B) bioremediation. C) gene therapy. D) agriculture. E) increased number of illnesses.E39) The major food producers for other living organisms is/are A) higher plants. B) cyanobacteria. C) algae. D) higher plants and algae. E) higher plants, cyanobacteria, and algae.E40) Gene therapy is currently used to treat all of the following diseases EXCEPT A) severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). B) Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. C) cystic fibrosis. D) LDL-receptor deficiency. E) colon cancer.E41) Recombinant DNA technology has become an increasingly important part of our life. It is used for all of the following EXCEPT A) vaccine production. B) enhancing food longevity. C) synthesis of water. D) drug production. E) increasing the nutritional value of food.C42) Normal microbiota A) indefinitely colonize the body. B) take up residence in sites such as the colon and mouth. C) almost always cause disease in the host. D) are normally found in blood. E) both indefinitely colonize the body and take up residence in sites such as the colon and mouth.E43) Which of the following statements about biofilms is FALSE? A) Compared to free-living bacteria, biofilms are more sensitive to antibiotics. B) Biofilms in pipes can block the flow of water. C) Biofilms in your body protect mucous membranes from harmful microbes. D) Biofilms on medical devices cause infections. E) Biofilms on rocks provide food for animal life.A44) Development of emerging infectious disease can be a result of all of the following EXCEPT A) microbial mutation. B) modern transportation. C) use of genetically modified foods. D) changes in the environment. E) overuse of antibiotics.C45) Who challenged the idea of spontaneous generation with the concept of biogenesis? A) Louis Pasteur B) Rudolf Virchow C) Anton van Leewenhoek D) John Needham E) Francesco RediB46) All of the following are true concerning emerging infectious diseases EXCEPT A) they always involve sporadic cases in endemic areas. B) they include newly described infectious agents. C) known pathogens develop evolutionary changes. D) known diseases spread to new regions or populations. E) they result from human exposure to a pathogen due to ecological changes.A47) Microorganisms are beneficial to humans in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) marine and freshwater organisms form the basis of the food web. B) soil microorganisms break down matter. C) some microorganisms live symbiotically with plants and transform nitrogen gas into organic compounds. D) Pseudomonas, molds and other microorganisms break down lettuce and strawberries at refrigeration temperatures. E) Fermenting microorganisms produce yogurt and sauerkraut from milk and cabbage.D48) What mistake did John Needham make that caused him to conclude that spontaneous generation for microorganisms occurred? A) He failed to seal his flasks of boiled broth. B) He allowed his assistant to conduct the experiment which he did not monitor closely. C) He did not boil his broth solutions, only warmed them. D) He re-contaminated his boiled broth solutions. E) He destroyed the vital force in the solutions.D49) From the list below, which would NOT be considered an emerging pathogen? A) Zika virus B) Avian influenza C) smallpox virus D) Ebola virus E) Lyme diseaseC50) All of the below are examples of a biofilm EXCEPT A) archaea as part of the plankton community in the open ocean. B) dental plaque. C) vegetations on a patient heart valve. D) slimy layer on riverbed rocks. E) infection of a patient catheter.A1) Infectious disease is almost totally eradicated in our world.false2) A student has obtained a sample of pond water for study. Using the high-power lens, he observes several cells with nuclei. He can conclude that the cells are NOT bacteria.true3) The process of pasteurization to reduce food spoilage utilizes high heat to kill all bacteria present.false4) Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first microbiologist to use a microscope to examine environmental samples for the presence of microorganisms.true5) Spontaneous generation refers to living cells arising only from other living cells.true6) Microbes are associated with life-sustaining benefits as well as life-threatening diseases.true7) All cells possess a cell wall.false8) All pathogens known to infect humans have been identified at this point in time.false9) The first antibiotic was discovered by Paul Ehrlich.false10) Enzymes from Bacillus organisms are used to remove spots on clothing.true