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Psychology Exam 1 - Professor Jamie Stanny
Terms in this set (39)
What is the emphasis of evolutionary psychology?
It emphasizes the important of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype is all of the person's genetic material while phenotype is the way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics.
Which of these is not a chromosomal abnormality?
a. Down syndrome
b. Klinefelter syndrome
c. Cystic fibrosis
d. Turner syndrome
Approximately _______ percent of couples in the United States experience infertility.
Describe adoption and name three pathways to adoption.
Adoption is the social and legal process that establishes a parent-child relationship between person's unrelated at birth
1. Domestic adoption from the public welfare system
2. Domestic infant adoption through private agencies and intermediaries
What are the purposes of twin studies and adoption studies?
Twin studies compare identical twins' behavioral similarity with fraternal twins' behavioral similarity
Adoption studies seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics adopted children are more like their adoptive parents or biological parents
Define the following:
- Passive genotype-environment correlations:
- Evocative genotype-environment correlations:
- Active genotype-environment correlations:
Passive genotype-environment correlations:
Children inherit genetic tendencies from their parents, and parents also provide an environment that matches their own genetic tendencies
Evocative genotype-environment correlations:
Child's genetic tendencies elicit stimulation from the environment that supports a particular trait; genes evoke environmental support
Active genotype-environment correlations:
Children actively seek out "niches" in their environment that reflects their own interests and talents and are thus in accord with their genotype.
What does the epigenetic view emphasize?
The epigenetic view emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between hereditary and environment.
Name and describe the three periods of prenatal development.
The Germinal Period
- 0-2 weeks
- Cell differentiation occurs
The Embryonic Period
- 3-8 weeks
- Organs are forming
The Fetal Period
- 9 weeks-Birth
- Heart is forming
What is a teratogen and what determines its severity of damage?
Teratogen is any agent that can cause a birth defect.
The dose, genetic susceptibility, and time of exposure to a particular teratogen influence the severity of damage and type of defect
Which is not an example of prenatal care?
c. Educational services
d. Scheduled medical visits
Describe the 3 stages of birth.
Stage 1 - Contractions cause the women's cervix to stretch and open
Stage 2 - From when the baby's head starts to come out to the the baby completely emerging from the mother's body
Stage 3 - Afterbirth
The placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled
Name three assessments used to evaluate a newborn.
The Apgar Scale
The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
What are some of the emotional and psychological adjustments new mothers go through during the postpartum period?
Emotional adjustments -
70% of new mothers in the United States have postpartum blues
Two or three days after birth, they begin to feel depressed/anxious/upset
Theses feeling usually go away after one or two weeks
Psychological adjustments -
Postpartum depression = a condition experienced by women who have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks during the postpartum period
10-14% of new mothers experience this
Typically occurs about 4 weeks after delivery
What are the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns?
The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top
The proximodistal pattern: the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
At birth, the newborn's brain is about ____ of its adult weight, and by the second birthday, it's about ____.
Describe the neuroconstructivist view.
It is a belief that biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain's development.
What are the four lobes:
- Frontal Lobe
- Parietal Lobe
- Occipital Lobe
- Temporal Lobe
Circle the option that is recommended:
1. Shared Sleeping or Separate Sleeping
2. Bottle Feeding or Breast Feeding
1. Separate Sleeping
2. Breast Feeding
What's the difference between perception and sensation?
Perception is the interpretation of what is sense whereas sensation is when the information interacts with the sensory receptors.
What's the difference between assimilation and accommodation?
Assimilation is when a child use his existing themes to deal with new information, whereas accommodation is when a child adjust their schemes to take on new information.
What happens during the sensorimotor stage?
Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordination sensory experiences with physical,motoric actions
__________________________ is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched.
What theory concludes that the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence?
Skinner's Theory of operant conditioning.
Describe the rules of language:
The sound system of language
The units of meaning involved in word formation
the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentence
The meaning of words and sentences
The appropriate use of language in different contexts
Which of these is not a purpose of babbling/infant vocalizations?
b. Strengthen mouth
c. Practice making sounds
d. Attract attention
A life-span perspective is the perspective that development is:
- Involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.
- Constructed through biological, sociological, and individual factors
Name and describe the three influences that give context to development.
Normative age - Graded influences
- Things that happened to everyone around the same time in their life. For example, puberty, or walking.
Normative history - Graded influences
- Where were you when 9/11, WW2, all occurred
Non-normative life events -
- Something that is life changing. For example, winning the lottery, teen pregnancy
Define the following and give an example. of how they are intertwined.
- Biologica Processes
- Cognitive Processes
- Socioemotional processes
- Biological Processes
Changes in an individuals physical nature.
Ex: inherited genes, weight gain
- Cognitive Processes
Changes in an individuals thought, intelligence and language
Ex: When are you able to memorize a poem
- Socioemotional processes
Changes in an individuals interpersonal relationships, emotions, and personality
INTERTWINED: A baby smiling at a parents' touch
Psychosexual stages of development
8 stages of development -----> Lifelong Process
Known for his theory of cognitive development in children
Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories
Theory of Operant Conditioning
Describe the following:
- Descriptive Research:
- Correlational Research:
- Experimental Research:
- Studies designed to observe and record behavior
- Research that attempts to determine the relationship between two or more events
- One or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated, while others are held constant
Whose responsibility is it to safeguard a participant's rights in research?
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